Intelligent Social Agent for the Development of Social Relations Based on Primary Emotions

  • Arnulfo Alanis Garza
  • Lenin G. Lemus Zuñiga
  • María del Rosario Baltazar
  • Bogart Yail Marquez
  • Carlos Lino Ramírez
  • Karina Romero
Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 38)


This article shows the experimentation with emotions in a scenario with a specific task, where the main goal is to see the behavior of emotions to the task given to them that based on the level of empathy that exists between these emotions, all this work is done within a Social Multi-Agent System, in which it is intended that two or more robots can present a profile of personality and emotion for the search of empathy between them to make a team.


  1. 1.
    Ahren, G.L., Schwartz, G.E.: Differential lateralization for positive versus negative emotion. Neuropsychologia 17, 693–698 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Borod, J.C., Kent, J., Koff, E., Martin, C., Alpert, M.: Facial asymmetry while posing positive and negative emotions: Support for the right hemispheric hypothesis. Neuropsycholoqia 26, 759–764 (1988)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bisquerra, R.: Educación emocional y bienestar. Praxis, Barcelona (2000)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cattell, R.B., Krug, S.E.: The number of factors in the 16FP: a review of the evidence with special emphasis on methodological problems. Educ. Psychol. Measur. 46(3), 509–522 (1986)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Campbell, R.: Asymmetries in interpreting and expressing a posed facial expression. Cortex 14, 327–342 (1978)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Campbell, R.: Cerebral asymmetries in the interpretation and expression of a posed expression. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of London (1979)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Campbell, R.: Left handers’ smiles: Asymmetries in the projection of a posed expression. Cortex 15, 571–579 (1979)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Carpenter, M.B.: Core Text of Neuroanatomy, 2nd edn. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore (1978)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Davidson, R.: Affect, cognition, and hemispheric specialization. In: Izard, C.E., Kagan, J., Zajonc, R. (eds.) Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior, pp. 320–365. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1984)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ehrlichman, H.: Hemispheric asymmetry and positive-negative affect. In: Ottoson, D. (ed.) Duality and Unity in the Brain, pp. 194–206. Macmillan, Hampshire (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gainotti, G.: Emotional behavior and hemispheric side of lesion. Cortex 8, 41–55 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gabarre, J.: El rostro y la personalidad: rostro, cerebro y conducta. Ediciones flumen. Barcelona, 4ª edición ampliada (2007)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Goleman, D.: La inteligencia Emocional en la Empresa. In: Vergara, J. (ed.) Barcelona, p. 26 (1999). González de Rivera, J.L.: Crisis Emocionales. Espasa-Calpe, Madrid 5 (2005). González de Rivera, J.L.: Ecpatía y empatía. Psiquis, 25(6), 243–245 (2004)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gunturkun, O.: The Venus of Milo and the dawn of facial asymmetry research. Brain Cognit. 16, 147–150 (1999)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gruebler, A., Suzuki, K.: A wearable interface for reading facial expressions based on bioelectrical signals. In: International Conference on Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research 2010. Paris, 2–4 March 2010Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hager, J.C.: Asymmetries in facial expression. In: Ekman, P. (ed.) Emotion in the Human Face, pp. 318–352Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hallevorden, J.: Eine neue Methode experimenteller Physiognormk [A new method of experimental physiognomy]. Psychuu, Neuroloq. Wochensch. 4:309–311 (1902)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hallevorden, J.: Rechts- und Links-handigkeit und Gesichtausdruck [Right- and left-handedness and facial expression]. Zentralbl. qes. Neuroloq. Psychiat. 53, 560 (1929)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Best, C.T., Womer, J.S., Freya Queen, H.: Hemispheric asymmetries in adults’ perception of infant emotional expressions. J. expo Psychol.: Hum. Percept. Perform. 20, 751–765 (1994)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Heilman, K.M., Bowers, D.: Neuropsychological studies of emotional changes induced by right and left hemispheric studies. In: Stein, N.L., Leventhal, B., Trabasso, T. (eds.) Psychological and Biological Approaches to Emotions, pp. 97–113. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ (1990)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Karch, G.R., Grant, C.W.: Asymmetry in perception of the sides of the human face. Percept. Mot. Skills 47, 727–734 (1978)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lindzey, G., Prince, B., Wright, H.K.A.: A study of facial asymmetry. J. Person. 21, 68–84 (1952)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    McGee, A., Skinner, M.: Facial asymmetry and the attribution of personality traits. Br. J. Soc. Psychol. 26, 181–184 (1987)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rhodes, G., Lynskey, M.: Face perception: attributions, asymmetries and stereotypes. Br. J. Soc. Psychol. 29, 375–377 (1990)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Borod, J.C.: Cerebral mechanism underlying facial, prosodic, and lexical emotional expression: a review of neuropsychological studies and methodological issues. Neuropsychology 7, 445–463 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sackeim, H., Weiman, A.L., Forman, B.D.: Asymmetry of the face at rest: size, area and emotional expression. Cortex 20, 165–178 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Seinen, M., van der Werff, J.J.: The perception of asymmetry in the face. Net. J. Psychol. 24, 551–555 (1969)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Silberman, E.K., Weingarten, H.: Hemispheric lateralization of functions related to emotion. Brain Cognit. 5, 322–353 (1986)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stringer, P., May, P.: Attributional asymmetries in the perception of moving, static, chimeric, and hemisected faces. J. Nonoerb. Behav. 5, 238–252 (1981)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Van Gelder, R.S., Van Gelder, L.: Facial expression and speech: neuroanatomical considerations. Int. J. Psychol. 25, 141–155 (1990)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wolff, W.: The experimental study of forms of expression. Charact. Person. 2(82), 168–176 (1933)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wolff, W.: The Study of Personality. Harper & Row, New York (1943)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wolff, W.: The experimental study of forms of expression. Charact. Person. 2, 168–176 (1933)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arnulfo Alanis Garza
    • 1
  • Lenin G. Lemus Zuñiga
    • 2
    • 3
  • María del Rosario Baltazar
    • 4
  • Bogart Yail Marquez
    • 1
  • Carlos Lino Ramírez
    • 4
  • Karina Romero
    • 1
  1. 1.Computing and Systems DepartmentTechnology Institute of TijuanaTijuanaMéxico
  2. 2.Universitat Politècnica de ValènciaValenciaSpain
  3. 3.RIS-ItacaUniversitat Politècnia de ValènciaValenciaSpain
  4. 4.Research DivisionTechnology Institute of LeonTijuanaMéxico

Personalised recommendations