Mechanical Aspects of Cardiac Performance

  • Michael K. LoushinEmail author
  • Jason L. Quill
  • Paul A. Iaizzo


This chapter is a review of commonly utilized monitoring techniques to assess the function of the general cardiovascular system. Specifically, means to assess arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, mixed venous oxygen saturation, cardiac output, pressure-volume loops, and Frank-Starling curves are described. Basic physiological principles underlying cardiac function are also briefly discussed.


Cardiac pressure-volume loops Blood pressure monitoring Central venous pressure monitoring Pulmonary artery pressure monitoring Cardiac output Cardiac index monitoring Mixed venous saturation monitoring Flow monitoring Implantable monitoring 

Supplementary material

145597_3_En_20_MOESM1_ESM.tif (939 kb)
JPG 20.1. Typical monitor display of electrocardiogram, blood pressures and SvO2 (TIFF 939 KB)
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JPG 20.2. Cannulation of a peripheral artery (TIFF 1,065 KB)
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JPG 20.3. A patient’s wrist is sterilely prepped and draped prior to cannulation of the radial artery (TIFF 739 KB)
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JPG 20.4. Typical pressure transducer for monitoring blood pressures (TIFF 611 KB)
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JPG 20.5. Millar catheter (TIFF 707 KB)
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JPG 20.6. Sensors on a Millar catheter (TIFF 291 KB)
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JPG 20.7. Typical central venous access kit (TIFF 717 KB)
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JPG 20.8. Cannulation of right internal jugular vein (TIFF 775 KB)
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JPG 20.9. Typical pulmonary artery catheter. This catheter also has the ability to continuously monitor cardiac output (TIFF 572 KB)
145597_3_En_20_MOESM10_ESM.tif (713 kb)
JPG 20.10. Inflated balloon at the distal tip of pulmonary artery catheter (TIFF 714 KB)
145597_3_En_20_MOESM11_ESM.tif (1 mb)
JPG 20.11. Pulmonary artery catheter with ability to continuously monitor cardiac output and mixed venous saturation (SvO2) (TIFF 1,032 KB)
145597_3_En_20_MOESM12_ESM.jpg (196 kb)
JPG 20.12. Angiogram showing an arterial dissection (JPEG 196 KB)

Video 20.1. Pressure-volume loops.wmv (swine) (WMV 47,421 KB)

Video 20.2. Pressure catheter placement.wmv (swine) (WMV 59,695 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael K. Loushin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jason L. Quill
    • 2
  • Paul A. Iaizzo
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  2. 2.Medtronic, Inc.MinneapolisUSA
  3. 3.Department of SurgeryUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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