Advertisement

Savannah Forest Beekeepers in Cameroon: Actions to Reduce Vulnerability

  • Verina Ingram
Chapter

Abstract

The savannah forests in Adamaoua, Cameroon, are home to traditional, forest-based beekeepers, subsistence farmers and pastoralists. This sparsely populated region is economically marginal and little developed, with lower than national average incomes. Forest apiculture is important here: honey, beeswax and propolis contribute on average to 68 % of household income and have high food, medicinal and cultural value. Bees are also critical pollinators of crops and trees. Practised by 48 % of the population in Djerem Division, apiculture is a route out of poverty only for a few larger-scale beekeepers, but provides a safety net and income diversification for the majority of the 12,000 beekeepers in the region. This savannah ecosystem has been historically subject to climatic changes. Unusual and increasing climatic variations add to human and forest vulnerability by affecting flowering seasons, pests and apiculture production. Land tenure is traditionally regulated, and the government, the formal landowner of public domain forest, is practically non-existent. Increasing apiculture product commercialization, mineral finds, dams and growing migration are transforming local perceptions of forest and land tenure and adding to already insecure livelihoods. The results of research (2004–2010) on how these beekeepers use the forest, their vulnerabilities and responses indicate that individual and group solutions are being bricolaged to secure livelihoods, adapt and mitigate changes. This includes formalization, collective action, product value-adding, tentative customary tenure changes and innovative new chain and market arrangements. Apiculture professionalization and product diversification are increasing the value of forest beekeeping and of revenues for men and women.

Keywords

Vulnerability Forest-based beekeepers Cameroon Ethnic groups Livelihoods 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Many thanks to Guiding Hope and all the beekeepers and traders who participated in this study, to Guiding Hope for use of socioeconomic baseline data for 2007 and 2010 and to Stéphanie Ngana Tangkeu for the use of data collected as part of her Master’s thesis in 2010.

References

  1. Alden, W. L. (2011). Whose land is it? The status of customary land tenure in Cameroon. Yaounde: Centre for Environment and Development/FERN/The Rainforest Foundation UK. http://www.fern.org/sites/fern.org/files/cameroon_eng_internet.pdf
  2. Awono, A., Ndoye, O., & Preece, L. (2010). Empowering women’s capacity for improved livelihoods in non-timber forest product trade in Cameroon. International Journal of Social Forestry, 3(2), 151–163.Google Scholar
  3. Barry, D., & Meinzen-Dick, R. (2008). The invisible map: Community tenure rights. 12th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of the Commons, Cheltenham: International Association for the Study of the Commons. http://dlc.dlib.indiana.edu/dlc/bitstream/handle/10535/1788/Barry_138902.pdf?sequence=1
  4. Bele, M. Y., Somorin, O., Sonwa, D. J., Nkem, J. N., & Locatelli, B. (2011). Politiques sur les forêts et l’adaptation aux changements climatiques au Cameroun. Bogor, Indonésie, CIFOR: 40.Google Scholar
  5. Bernard, T., Collion, M. H., Janvry, A. D., Rondot, P., & Sadoulet, E. (2008). Do village organizations make a difference in African rural development? A study for Senegal and Burkina Faso. World Development, 36(11), 2188–2204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bouba, A., Francois, A. A., Ngangyung, H., & Abou, S. (2012). Tenure, management, degradation of farmlands, pasturelands and household/livestock water resources in the Vina-division Adamawa-Cameroon. Journal of Environment and Ecology, 3(1), 217–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boutrais, J. (2000). Elevage et érosion en Adamaoua (Cameroun). Bulletin-Réseau Erosion, 20, 204–217.Google Scholar
  8. Brenan, J. P. M. (1978). Some aspects of the phytogeography of tropical Africa. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 65(2), 437–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burnham, P. (1975). ‘Regroupement’ and mobile societies: Two Cameroon cases. The Journal of African History, 16(04), 577–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burnham, P. (1980). Opportunity and constraint in a savanna society: The Gbaya of Meiganga, Cameroon. London: Academic.Google Scholar
  11. Cleaver, F. (2002). Reinventing institutions: Bricolage and the social embeddedness of natural resource management. European Journal of Development Research, 14(2), 11–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Crane, E. (1999). The world history of beekeeping and honey hunting. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Cummings, J. N. (2004). Work groups, structural diversity, and knowledge sharing in a global organization. Management Science, 50(3), 352–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dafinger, A., & Pelican, M. (2006). Sharing or dividing the land? Land rights and farmer-herder relations in Burkina Faso and Northwest Cameroon. Canadian Journal of African Studies, 40(1), 127–151.Google Scholar
  15. Dixon, R. K., Perry, J. A., Vanderklein, E. L., & Hiol, F. (1996). Vulnerability of forest resources to global climate change: case study of Cameroon and Ghana. Climate Research, 6, 127–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Egbe, S. (1997). Forest tenure and access to forest resources in Cameroon: An overview (Forestry participation series, Vol. 6). London: IIED.Google Scholar
  17. Enchaw, G. B. (2010). Conservation strategies in the management of natural resources in Kilum Ijum, North West Cameroon. Ph.D., University of Yaounde I.Google Scholar
  18. Evers, S., Spierenburg, M., & Wels, H. (2005). Competing jurisdictions: Settling land claims in Africa. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  19. FAO. (2010). Preliminary technical consultation workshop on non-wood forest products (NWFP) Ayaba Hotel, Bamenda, 3–5 May 2010, Final report. Cadre légal et réglementaire régissant l’exploitation et la commercialisation des Produits Forestiers Non Ligneux (PFNL) au Cameroun. Bamenda: FAO-CIFOR-SNV-World Agroforestry Center-COMIFAC: 50.Google Scholar
  20. Favier, C., Chave, J., Fabing, A., Schwartz, D., & Dubois, M. A. (2004). Modelling forest–savanna mosaic dynamics in man-influenced environments: Effects of fire, climate and soil heterogeneity. Ecological Modelling, 171(1), 85–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fohou, F. N. T., Tope, S. F., Mbianda, A. P., Messi, J., & Brückner, D. (2010). Foraging behaviour of Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) on Daniellia oliveri, Delonix regia, Hymenocardia acida and Terminalia mantaly flowers in Ngaoundéré (Cameroon). International Journal Biological Chemical Science, 4(4), 1180–1190.Google Scholar
  22. Gentry, C. (1982). Small scale beekeeping, Peace Corps. http://www3.telus.net/conrad/2.htm
  23. Guiding Hope, Paella-e Cameroon. (2010). Report of the National gathering of the beekeepers of Cameroon from 05 to 07 August 2010 in Ngaoundal, Adamaoua: 28.Google Scholar
  24. Harchies, M., Binot, A., & Wolff, E. (2007). Impacts mutuels de la conservation et de l’elevage transhumants sur l’occupation des sols et les ressources environnementales. une étude de cas camerounaise. VertigO-la revue électronique en sciences de l’environnement (Hors-série 4). http://vertigo.revues.org/808
  25. Ibrahima, A., Mapongmetsem, P., Bouitang, D., & Hassana, B. (2007). Regeneration of some fuelwood tree species of humid savanna of Adamawa, Cameroon: Effects of season and cutting height. Ghana Journal of Science, 47, 45–57.Google Scholar
  26. Ingram, V. (2009). The honey market chain in Cameroon (p. 13). Briefing. Yaounde: CIFOR.Google Scholar
  27. Ingram, V. (2010). Key note speech: Taking stock & projecting apiculture value chains into the future in West and Central Africa: Win-wins for livelihoods & conservation? West & Central Africa forestry knowledge network event: Generating and sharing knowledge, lessons and good practice in apiculture Foumban, Cameroon, FAO/SNV.Google Scholar
  28. Ingram, V. (2014). Win-wins in NTFP value chains? How governance impacts the sustainability of livelihoods based on Congo Basin forest products. Ph.D., University of Amsterdam, 361p. http://dare.uva.nl/document/515924
  29. Ingram, V., & Husselman, M. (2010). African forest apiculture market chains: Win-wins for livelihoods and conservation? International conference SWC2010 people forests and the environment coexisting in harmony, Casablanca: Sylva-World.Google Scholar
  30. Ingram, V., & Mala, W. (2010). Les produits apicoles au Cameroun (p. 2). Briefs. Yaounde: CIFOR/FAO/SNV/ICRAF.Google Scholar
  31. Ingram, V., & Njikeu, J. (2011). Sweet, sticky and sustainable social business. Ecology and Society, 16(1), 37.Google Scholar
  32. Kaplinsky, R., & Morris, M. (2003). Governance matters in value chains. Journal of Development Alternatives, 9(1), 11–18.Google Scholar
  33. Letouzey, R. (1968). Étude phytogéographique du Cameroun. Paris Vè.Google Scholar
  34. Leven, L., Boot, W. J., Mutsaers, M., Segeren, P., & Velthuis, H. (2005). L’apiculture dans les zones tropicales (Agrodok, Vol. 32, p. 94). Wageningen: Fondation Agromisa.Google Scholar
  35. Millennium-Ecosystem-Assessment. (2005). Ecosystems and human well-being: Synthesis (p. 155). Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  36. Mitchard, E. T. A., Saatchi, S. S., Gerard, F. F., Lewis, S. L., & Meir, P. (2009). Measuring woody encroachment along a forest-savanna boundary in Central Africa. Earth Interactions, 13(8), 1–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. National Institute of Statistics. (2001). Deuxieme Enquête Camerounaise Auprès des Ménages (ECAM II). Pauvrete et sante au Cameroun en 2001 (p. 6). Yaoundé: National Institute of Statistics.Google Scholar
  38. National Institute of Statistics. (2007). Troisieme Enquête Camerounaise Auprès des Ménages (ECAM III). Yaounde: National Institute of Statistics.Google Scholar
  39. National Institute of Statistics. (2010a). Rapport national de progres des objectifs du millenaire pour le developpement Année 2010 (p. 60). Yaounde: Republique du Cameroun, Ministere de l’Economie, de la Planification et de l’Amenagement du Territoire.Google Scholar
  40. National Institute of Statistics. (2010b). Annuaire Statistique du Cameroun 2010 (p. 52). Yaounde.Google Scholar
  41. Njoh, A. J. (1998). The political economy of urban land reforms in a post-colonial state. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 22(3), 408–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ostrom, E. (1990). Governing the commons: The evolution of institutions for collective action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Paterson, P. D. (1989). An appraisal of beekeeping in North-West Cameroon (p. 56). Nairobi/Washington: Appropriate Technology International.Google Scholar
  44. Republic of Cameroon. (2011). La population du Cameroun en 2010. RGPH, INIS. Available at: http://www.statistics-cameroon.org/downloads/La_population_du_Cameroun_2010.pdf
  45. Ribot, J. (2005). Policy and distributional equity in natural resource commodity markets: Commodity chain analysis as a policy tool (p. 25). Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.Google Scholar
  46. Robiglio, V., Ngendakumana, S., Gockowski, J., Yemefack, M., Tchienkoua, M., Mbile, P., Tchawa, P., Tchoundjeu, Z., & Bolognesi, M. (2010). Reducing emissions from all land uses in Cameroon (p. 110). Yaounde: ASB Partnership for the Tropical Forest Margins.Google Scholar
  47. Schure, J., Ingram, V., Tieguhong, J. C., & Ndikumagenge, C. (2011). Institutional aspects of artisanal mining in forest landscapes, Congo Basin. In K. Krish (Ed.), Geological resources and good governance in Sub-Saharan Africa: Holistic approaches to management and sustainable development. London: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  48. Scoones, I. (1998). Sustainable rural livelihoods: A framework for Analysis (p. 22). IDS working paper 72. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies.Google Scholar
  49. Somorin, O. A., Brown, H., Visseren-Hamakers, I. J., Sonwa, D. J., Arts, B., & Nkem, J. (2012). The Congo Basin forests in a changing climate: Policy discourses on adaptation and mitigation (REDD+). Global Environmental Change, 22(1), 288–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sonwa, D. J., Nkem, J. N., Idinoba, M. E., Bele, M. Y., & Jum, C. (2011). Building regional priorities in forests for development and adaptation to climate change in the Congo Basin. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 1–10. doi: 10.1007/s11027-011-9335-5.
  51. Sonwa, D. J., Somorin, O. A., Jum, C., Bele, M. Y., & Nkem, J. (2012). Vulnerability, forest-related sectors and climate change adaptation: The case of Cameroon. Forest Policy and Economics, 23, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tchana, M. (2010). The action of beekeeping CIGs in Cameroon and the problematic of ethics, fair trade and sustainable development. The case of CIG Guiding Hope. Masters in development and international relations masters, Protestant University of Central Africa.Google Scholar
  53. Tchotsoua, M., & Gonne, B. (2010). Des crises socioéconomiques aux crises environnementales sur les Hautes Terres de l’Adamaoua, Cameroun. Actes du colloque Savanes africaines en développement: innover pour durer. Garoua, 20–23 Apr 2009.Google Scholar
  54. Tonye, J., Meke-Me-Ze, C., & Titi-Nwel, P. (1993). Implications of national land legislation and customary land and tree tenure on the adoption of alley farming. Agroforestry Systems, 22, 153–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tsai, W. (2002). Social structure of “coopetition” within a multiunit organization: Coordination, competition, and intraorganizational knowledge sharing. Organization Science, 13(2), 179–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. UNDP. (2009). Human development report 2009 overcoming barriers: Human mobility and development (p. 229). New York: UNDP.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. UNDP/ARPEN. (2006). Plan d’Action National de Lutte Contre la Désertification (PAN/LCD) (Vol. I, p. 104). Yaounde: CCD/MINEP et du Programme APREN/PNUD.Google Scholar
  58. United Nations Population Fund. (1999). Nigeria population census 1991 analysis proceedings of population census dissemination seminars, Calabar (16–18 Nov) and Kaduna (29 Nov–2 Dec).Google Scholar
  59. WHINCONET. (2006). Cameroon honey marketing forum: Conference and exhibitions report. Summary report. Limbe: SNV.Google Scholar
  60. Widner, J., & Mundt, A. (1998). Researching social capital in Africa. Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, 68(1), 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Winter, M., & Quan, J. (1999). Land tenure and resource access in West Africa: Issues and opportunities for the next twenty five years (Working paper). London: IIED.Google Scholar
  62. Wollenberg, E., Anderson, J., & Edmunds, D. (2001). Pluralism and the less powerful: accommodating multiple interests in local forest management. International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology, 1(3), 199–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. World Bank. (2009). Doing business, World Bank. http://www.doingbusiness.org/reports/global-reports/doing-business-2009/
  64. World Wildlife Fund, & Saundy, P. (2008). Central Western Africa. Encyclopedia of earth. Washington, DC: C. J. Cleveland. Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment. Available at: http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/151032/
  65. Yengoh, G. T., Hickler, T., & Tchuinte, A. (2011). Agro-climatic resources and challenges to food production in Cameroon. Geocarto International, 26(4), 251–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Central Africa Regional OfficeMessaCameroon
  2. 2.Forest and Nature Conservation PolicyWageningen UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations