Advertisement

Boxy/Peanut/X Bulges, Barlenses and the Thick Part of Galactic Bars: What Are They and How Did They Form?

  • E. Athanassoula
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 418)

Abstract

Bars have a complex three-dimensional shape. In particular their inner part is vertically much thicker than the parts further out. Viewed edge-on, the thick part of the bar is what is commonly known as a boxy-, peanut-, or X- bulge and viewed face-on it is referred to as a barlens. These components are due to disc and bar instabilities and are composed of disc material. I review here their formation, evolution and dynamics, using simulations, orbital structure theory and comparisons to observations.

Keywords

Periodic Orbit Orbital Structure Disc Galaxy Thick Part Unstable Periodic Orbit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

I thank Albert Bosma for many stimulating discussions and the editors for inviting me to write this review. Figures 14.4 and 14.5 were made using glnemo2 (http://projets.lam.fr/-projects/glnemo2). I acknowledge financial support from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013/ under REA grant agreement number PITN-GA-2011-289313 to the DAGAL network. I also acknowledge financial support from the CNES (Center National d’Etudes Spatiales – France) and from the “Programme National de Cosmologie et Galaxies” (PNCG) of CNRS/INSU, France, and HPC resources from GENCI- TGCC/CINES (Grants x2013047098 and x2014047098) and from the Mesocentre of Aix-Marseille Université (program DIFOMER).

References

  1. Aronica, G., Athanassoula, E., Bureau, M., Bosma, A., Dettmar, R.-J., Vergani, D., Pohlen, M., 2003, Ap&SS, 284, 753CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Athanassoula E., 1992a, MNRAS, 259, 328CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. Athanassoula E., 1992b, MNRAS, 259, 345CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. Athanassoula E., 2002, ApJL, 569, L83CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Athanassoula E., 2003, MNRAS, 341, 1179CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Athanassoula E., 2005a, MNRAS, 358, 1477CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. Athanassoula E., 2005b, in Planetary Nebulae as Astronomical Tools, Szczerba R., Stasinska G., Gorny S. K., eds., AIP Conference Proceedings, 804, 333Google Scholar
  8. Athanassoula E., 2005c, Ann. New York Acad. Sciences, 1045, 168CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Athanassoula E., 2008, in Formation and Evolution of Galaxy Bulges, IAU Symp. 245, eds. M. Bureau, E. Athanassoula & B. Barbuy, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 93Google Scholar
  10. Athanassoula E., 2013a, in Secular Evolution of Galaxies, eds. J. Falcón-Barroso & J.H. Knapen, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 305Google Scholar
  11. Athanassoula E., 2012, MNRAS, 426, L46CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. Athanassoula, E., Beaton, R. 2006, MNRAS, 370, 1499CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. Athanassoula, E., Bienaymé, O., Martinet, L. & Pfenniger, D. 1983, A&A, 127, 349ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. Athanassoula, E., Bureau, M. 1999, ApJ, 522, 699CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. Athanassoula, E., Laurikainen, Salo & Bosma, 2014, arXiv:1405.6726 (ALSB)Google Scholar
  16. Athanassoula, E., Machado, R. E. G., & Rodionov, S. A. 2013, MNRAS, 429, 1949CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Athanassoula, E., Misiriotis, A., 2002, MNRAS, 330, 35 (AM02)Google Scholar
  18. Beaton, R., Majewski, S.R., Guhathakurta, P., Skrutskie, M.F., Cutri, R.M., Good, J., Patterson, R.J., Athanassoula, E., Bureau, M., 2007, ApJ, 658, L91CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. Berentzen I., Heller C. H., Shlosman I., Fricke K. J., 1998, MNRAS, 300, 49CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. Berentzen I., Shlosman I., Martinez-Valpuesta I., Heller C. H., 2007, ApJ, 666, 189CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. Bettoni, D., Galletta, G., 1994, A&A, 281, 1ADSGoogle Scholar
  22. Bureau M., Aronica G., Athanassoula E., Dettmar R.-J., Bosma A., Freeman K. C., 2006, MNRAS, 370, 753CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. Bureau, M., Athanassoula, E. 1999, ApJ, 522, 686CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. Bureau M., Athanassoula E., 2005, ApJ, 626, 159CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. Bureau, M., Freeman, K. C. 1999, AJ, 118, 126CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. Buta, R., Laurikainen, E., Salo, H., Block, D., Knapen, J.H., 2006, AJ, 132, 1859CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. Cappelari, M., Copin, Y., 2003, MNRAS, 342, 345CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. Chung, A., Bureau, M. 2004, AJ, 127, 3192CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. Combes F., Debbasch F., Friedli D., Pfenniger D., 1990, A&A, 233, 82ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. Combes F., Sanders R. H., 1981, A&A, 96, 164ADSGoogle Scholar
  31. Contopoulos G., Harsoula, M. 2008, Intern. J. of Bifurcation and Chaos, 18, 2929MathSciNetCrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. Contopoulos G., Papayannopoulos, T. 1980, A&A, 92, 33MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  33. Debattista V. P., Carollo C. M., Mayer L., Moore B., 2004, ApJ, 604, L93CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. Debattista V. P., Mayer L., Carollo C. M., Moore B., Wadsley J., Quinn T., 2006, ApJ, 645, 209CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. Dettmar, R.J., Barteldrees, A., 1990, in ESO/CTIO Workshop on Bulges of Galaxies, Proceedings (A92-18101 05-90)Google Scholar
  36. D’Onofrio M., Capaccioli M., Merluzzi P., Zaggia S., Boulesteix J., 1999, A&AS, 134, 437CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  37. Erwin, P., 2008, in Formation and Evolution of Galaxy Bulges, IAU Symp. 245, eds. M. Bureau, E. Athanassoula & B. Barbuy, Cambridge University Press, 113Google Scholar
  38. Erwin, P., Debattista, V.P., 2013, MNRAS, 431, 3060CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  39. Falcon-Barroso, J. et al. 2004, MNRAS, 350, 35CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  40. Ferrers N. M. 1877, Q.J. Pure Appl. Math., 14, 1Google Scholar
  41. Fisher, D., Illingworth, G., Franx, M., 1994, AJ, 107, 160CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  42. Fragkoudi, F., Athanassoula, E., Bosma, A., Iannuzzi, F., MNRAS, 2015, 450, 229CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  43. Gadotti D. A., 2008, MNRAS, 384, 420CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  44. Harsoula M., Kalapotharakos C., 2009, MNRAS, 394, 1605CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  45. Hohl, F., Zang, T.A. 1979, AJ, 84, 585CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  46. Iannuzzi, F., Athanassoula, E., 2015, MNRAS, 450, 2514 (IA15)Google Scholar
  47. Kormendy, J., 1979, ApJ, 227, 714CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  48. Kormendy, J., 2008, in Formation and Evolution of Galaxy Bulges, IAU Symp. 245, eds. M. Bureau, E. Athanassoula & B. Barbuy, Cambridge Univ. Press, 107Google Scholar
  49. Kormendy, J., 2013, in Secular Evolution of Galaxies, eds. Jesús Falcón-Barroso & Johan H. Knapen, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2013, 1Google Scholar
  50. Kormendy, J., Illingworth, G., 1982, ApJ, 256, 460CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  51. Kormendy J., Kennicutt R. C., Jr., 2004, ARA&A, 42, 603CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  52. Kuijken, K., Merrifield, M. R. 1995, ApJ, 443, L13CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  53. Laurikainen E., Salo H., Buta R., Knapen J. H., Comeron, S, 2010, MNRAS, 405, 1089ADSGoogle Scholar
  54. Laurikainen E., Salo H., Buta R., Knapen J. H., 2011, MNRAS, 418, 1452CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  55. Laurikainen, E., Salo, H., Athanassoula, E., Bosma, A., Buta, R., Janz, J. 2013, MNRAS, 430, 3489CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  56. Laurikainen, E., Salo, H., Athanassoula, E., Bosma, A., Herrera Endoqui, M. 2014, MNRAS, 444, L80CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  57. Lütticke R., Dettmar R.-J., Pohlen M., 2000a, A&AS, 145, 405CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  58. Lütticke R., Dettmar R.-J., Pohlen M., 2000b, A&A, 362, 435ADSGoogle Scholar
  59. Manos, T., Athanassoula, E., 2011, MNRAS, 415, 629CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  60. Manos, T., Machado, R. 2014, MNRAS, 438, 2201CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  61. Martinez-Valpuesta I., Shlosman I., Heller C., 2006, ApJ, 637, 214CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  62. Mendez-Abreu, J., Corsini, E.M., Debattista, V.P., De Rijcke, S., Aguerri, J.A.L., Pizzella, A., 2008, ApJ, 679, L73CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  63. Merrifield, M. R., Kuijken, K. 1999, A&A, 345, L47ADSGoogle Scholar
  64. Miller, R.H., Smith, 1979, ApJ, 227, 785Google Scholar
  65. Mihos, J.C., Walker, I.R., Hernquist, L., Mendes de Oliveira, C., Bolte, M., 1995, ApJ, 447, L87CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  66. O’Neill J. K., Dubinski J., 2003, MNRAS, 346, 251CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  67. Patsis P. A., Katsanikas, M. 2014a, MNRAS, 445, 3525CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  68. Patsis P. A., Katsanikas, M. 2014b, MNRAS, 445, 3546CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  69. Patsis P. A., Skokos, Ch., Athanassoula E., 2002, MNRAS, 337, 578 (PSA02)Google Scholar
  70. Patsis P. A., Xilouris, M., 2006, MNRAS, 366, 1121CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  71. Pfenniger, D. 1984, A&A, 134, 373MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  72. Pfenniger D., Friedli D., 1991, A&A, 252, 75ADSGoogle Scholar
  73. Quillen, A.C., Kuchinski, L.E., Frogel, J.A., DePoy, D.L., 1997, ApJ, 481, 179CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  74. Quillen, A.C., Minchev, I., Sharma, S., Qin, Y.-J., Di Matteo, P., 2014, MNRAS, 437, 1284,CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  75. Raha N., Sellwood J. A., James R. A., Kahn F. D., 1991, Nature, 352, 411CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  76. Sandage, A., The Hubble Atlas of Galaxies, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1961Google Scholar
  77. Saha, K., Pfenniger, D., Taam, R.E., 2013, ApJ, 764, 123CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  78. Sheth, K. et al. 2010, PASP, 122, 1397CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  79. Skokos, Ch., Patsis, P.A., Athanassoula, E. 2002a, MNRAS, 333, 847CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  80. Skokos, Ch., Patsis, P.A., Athanassoula, E. 2002b, MNRAS, 333, 861CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  81. Toomre A. Geophys. Fluid Dyn., No. 66–46, 111Google Scholar
  82. Villa-Vargas J., Shlosman I., Heller C., 2010, ApJ, 719, 1470CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  83. Wakamatsu, K.I., Hamabe, M., 1984, ApJS, 56, 283CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  84. Williams, M.J., Zamojski, M.A., Bureau, M., Kuntschner, H., Merrifield, M.R., de Zeeuw, P.T., Kuijken, K., 2013, MNRAS, 414, 2163CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  85. Wozniak H., Michel-Dansac L., 2009, A&A, 494, 11CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Aix Marseille Université, CNRSLAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille), UMR 7326Marseille 13France

Personalised recommendations