Advertisement

Image Descriptor Based Digital Semi-blind Watermarking for DIBR 3D Images

  • Hsin Miao
  • Yu-Hsun LinEmail author
  • Ja-Ling Wu
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9023)

Abstract

Content protection for 3D multimedia data is essential to assure property rights. The depth-image-based rendering (DIBR) operation is one of the ways to synthesize arbitrary virtual views from color-plus-depth 3D data. In this work, a novel semi-blind watermarking scheme is proposed to protect DIBR 3D images. The watermarking system utilizes image descriptors as side information to compensate the distortion produced by DIBR operations. The compensation process (aka resynchronization) estimates the disparity map between the views and recovers the synthesized virtual view back to the watermark embedded view. As compared with the existing related work, the proposed method is able to detect embedded watermark on arbitrary DIBR synthesized virtual views. We also investigate the effects of choosing different image descriptors as the side information for resynchronization. Furthermore, experimental results show that the proposed scheme is robust to against JPEG compression plus DIBR attack (i.e., DIBR operation performed on the JPEG compressed 3D images). Finally, the robustness of our work against HEVC (i.e., H.265) 3D compression plus DIBR is also investigated.

Keywords

Blind watermarking Color-plus-depth 3D image Depth-image-based rendering (DIBR) Image descriptor Resynchronization 

References

  1. 1.
    Call for Proposals on 3D Video Coding Technology. ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 MPEG2011/N12036, March 2011Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhu, N., Ding, G., Wang, J.: A novel digital watermarking method for new viewpoint video based on depth map. In: ISDA 2008, vol. 2, pp. 3–7 (2008)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Halici, E., Alatan, A.: Watermarking for depth-image-based rendering. In: IEEE ICIP 2009, pp. 4217–4220 (2009)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lin, Y.-H., Wu, J.-L.: A digital blind watermarking for depth-image-based rendering 3d images. IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 57(2), 602–611 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kim, H.-D., Lee, J.-W., Oh, T.-W., Lee, H.-K.: Robust dt-cwt watermarking for DIBR 3D images. IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 58(4), 533–543 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Test Model under Consideration for HEVC based 3D video coding. ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 MPEG2011/M12350, November 2011Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cox, I.J., Kilian, J., Leighton, F., Shamoon, T.: Secure spread spectrum watermarking for multimedia. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6(12), 1673–1687 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dong, P., Brankov, J.G., Galatsanos, N.P., Yang, Y., Davoine, F.: Digital watermarking robust to geometric distortions. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 14, 2140–2150 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bas, P., Chassery, J.-M., Macq, B.: Geometrically invariant watermarking using feature points. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11(9), 1014–1028 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dugelay, J., Roche, S., Rey, C., Doerr, G.: Still-image watermarking robust to local geometric distortions. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 15(9), 2831–2842 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lowe, D.G.: Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints. IJCV 60(2), 91–110 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chandrasekhar, V., Takacs, G., Chen, D., Tsai, S., Reznik, Y., Grzeszczuk, R., Girod, B.: Compressed histogram of gradients: a low-bitrate descriptor. IJCV 96(3), 384–399 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Malvar, H., Florencio, D.: Improved spread spectrum: a new modulation technique for robust watermarking. IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 51(4), 898–905 (2003)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liu, M.-Y., Tuzel, O., Ramalingam, S., Chellappa, R.: Entropy rate superpixel segmentation. In: IEEE CVPR 2011, pp. 2097–2104 (2011)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Descriptions of exploration experiments in 3-d video coding, JTC 1/SC 29/WG11, no. N10173, October 2008Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of CSIENational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.GINMNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  3. 3.Intel-NTU Connected Context Computing CenterTaipeiTaiwan

Personalised recommendations