Universal Disjunctive Concatenation and Star
Two language operations that can be expressed by suitably combining complement with concatenation and star, respectively, are introduced. The state complexity of those operations on regular languages is investigated. In the deterministic case, optimal exponential state gaps are proved for both operations. In the nondeterministic case, for one operation an optimal exponential gap is also proved, while for the other operation an exponential upper bound is obtained.
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