Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage Association with Carcinogenesis: A Truth or a Myth?

  • Vasiliki I. Hatzi
  • Danae A. Laskaratou
  • Ifigeneia V. Mavragani
  • Gabriel E. Pantelias
  • Georgia I. Terzoudi
  • Alexandros G. Georgakilas

Abstract

Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) possess the capacity to damage DNA (both nuclear and mitochondrial) and other cellular macromolecules, resulting in various outcomes for the cell such as loss of function and stability, mutation, senescence (mainly due to telomeric shortening) and/or cell death, unless removed rapidly by antioxidative mechanisms evolved by the cell. Over the last decade, great emphasis has been put on the potential role(s) and association of oxidative stress with ageing and certain diseases including cancer, and the idea of using several oxidatively generated DNA lesions as novel biomarkers of oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and susceptibility to cancer gains more ground. The present chapter focuses on the description of genotoxic forms of oxygen, types of resulting oxidative DNA damage and their usage as potential biomarkers in several diseases including cancer.

Keywords

Reactive oxygen species ROS DNA damage Oxidative stress Carcinogenesis 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vasiliki I. Hatzi
    • 1
  • Danae A. Laskaratou
    • 2
  • Ifigeneia V. Mavragani
    • 2
  • Gabriel E. Pantelias
    • 1
  • Georgia I. Terzoudi
    • 1
  • Alexandros G. Georgakilas
    • 2
  1. 1.Radiation Protection Laboratory, Health Physics, Radiobiology and CytogeneticsInstitute of Nuclear & Radiological Science & Technology, Energy & Safety, National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”AthensGreece
  2. 2.Physics Department, School of Applied Mathematical and Physical SciencesNational Technical University of Athens (NTUA)AthensGreece

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