RALph: A Graphical Notation for Resource Assignments in Business Processes

  • Cristina Cabanillas
  • David Knuplesch
  • Manuel Resinas
  • Manfred Reichert
  • Jan Mendling
  • Antonio Ruiz-Cortés
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9097)

Abstract

The business process (BP) resource perspective deals with the management of human as well as non-human resources throughout the process lifecycle. Although it has received increasing attention recently, there exists no graphical notation for it up until now that is both expressive enough to cover well-known resource selection conditions and independent of any BP modelling language. In this paper, we introduce RALph, a graphical notation for the assignment of human resources to BP activities. We define its semantics by mapping this notation to a language that has been formally defined in description logics, which enables its automated analysis. Although we show how RALph can be seamlessly integrated with BPMN, it is noteworthy that the notation is independent of the BP modelling language. Altogether, RALph will foster the visual modelling of the resource perspective in BPs.

Keywords

BPM Graphical notation RALph Resource assignment 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Dumas, M., Rosa, M.L., Mendling, J., Reijers, H.A.: Fundamentals of Business Process Management. Springer (2013)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Whittle, J., Hutchinson, J., Rouncefield, M.: The State of Practice in Model-Driven Engineering. IEEE Software 31(3), 79–85 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    OMG, BPMN 2.0. Recommendation, OMG (2011)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    van der Aalst, W.M.P., ter Hofstede, A.H.M.: YAWL: Yet Another Workflow Language. Inf. Syst. 30(4), 245–275 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cabanillas, C., Resinas, M., Cortés, A.R.: Specification and Automated Design-Time Analysis of the Business Process Human Resource Perspective. Inf. Syst. (in press, 2015)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Strembeck, M., Mendling, J.: Modeling process-related RBAC models with extended UML activity models. Inf. Softw. Technol. 53, 456–483 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Russell, N., ter Hofstede, A., Edmond, D., van der Aalst, W.M.P.: Workflow resource patterns. In: Tech. Rep., BETA, WP 127. Eindhoven Univ. of Tech (2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Konyen, I., Reichert, M., Schultheiss, B.: Prozessentwurf eines ablaufs im labor. In: Tech. Rep. Ulm University (1996)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Semmelrodt, F.: Modellierung klinischer Prozesse und Compliance Regeln mittels BPMN 2.0 und eCRG. Master’s thesis, University of Ulm (2013)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Koschmider, A., Yingbo, L., Schuster, T.: Role assignment in business process models. In: Daniel, F., Barkaoui, K., Dustdar, S. (eds.) BPM Workshops 2011, Part I. LNBIP, vol. 99, pp. 37–49. Springer, Heidelberg (2012) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    van der Aalst, W.M.P., Kumar, A.: A Reference Model for Team-enabled Workflow Management Systems. Data Knowl. Eng. 38(3), 335–363 (2001)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bertino, E., Ferrari, E., Atluri, V.: The specification and enforcement of authorization constraints in workflow management systems. ACM Trans. Inf. Syst. Secur. 2, 65–104 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stepien, B., Felty, A., Matwin, S.: A non-technical user-oriented display notation for XACML conditions. In: Babin, G., Kropf, P., Weiss, M. (eds.) E-Technologies: Innovation in an Open World. LNBIP, vol. 26, pp. 53–64. Springer, Heidelberg (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    van der Aalst, W.: Formalization and verification of event-driven process chains. Information and Software Technology 41(10), 639–650 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ferraiolo, D.F., et al.: Proposed NIST standard for role-based access control. ACM Trans. Inf. Syst. Secur. 4, 224–274 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wolter, C., Schaad, A.: Modeling of task-based authorization constraints in BPMN. In: Alonso, G., Dadam, P., Rosemann, M. (eds.) BPM 2007. LNCS, vol. 4714, pp. 64–79. Springer, Heidelberg (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Awad, A., Grosskopf, A., Meyer, A., Weske, M.: Enabling resource assignment constraints in BPMN. In: Tech. Rep., BPT (2009)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stroppi, L.J.R., Chiotti, O., Villarreal, P.D.: A BPMN 2.0 extension to define the resource perspective of business process models. In: CIbS 2011 (2011)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    WS-BPEL Extension for People (BPEL4People). In: Tech. Rep., OASIS (2009)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Adams, M.: YAWL v2.3-User Manual (2012)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Semmelrodt, F., Knuplesch, D., Reichert, M.: Modeling the resource perspective of business process compliance rules with the extended compliance rule graph. In: Bider, I., Gaaloul, K., Krogstie, J., Nurcan, S., Proper, H.A., Schmidt, R., Soffer, P. (eds.) BPMDS 2014 and EMMSAD 2014. LNBIP, vol. 175, pp. 48–63. Springer, Heidelberg (2014) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Decker, G., Overdick, H., Weske, M.: Oryx – an open modeling platform for the BPM community. In: Dumas, M., Reichert, M., Shan, M.-C. (eds.) BPM 2008. LNCS, vol. 5240, pp. 382–385. Springer, Heidelberg (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Moody, D.L.: The Physics of Notations: Toward a Scientific Basis for Constructing Visual Notations in Software Engineering. IEEE Trans. Software Eng. 35(6), 756–779 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Figl, K., Recker, J., Mendling, J.: A study on the effects of routing symbol design on process model comprehension. Decision Support Systems 54(2), 1104–1118 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Smith, M., Erwin, J., Diaferio, S.: Role and responsibility charting (RACI). In: Project Management Forum (PMForum) (2005)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cristina Cabanillas
    • 1
  • David Knuplesch
    • 2
  • Manuel Resinas
    • 3
  • Manfred Reichert
    • 2
  • Jan Mendling
    • 1
  • Antonio Ruiz-Cortés
    • 3
  1. 1.Vienna University of Economics and BusinessViennaAustria
  2. 2.Ulm UniversityUlmGermany
  3. 3.University of SevilleSevilleSpain

Personalised recommendations