Spatiotemporal Variability of Hydrological Variables of Dapo Watershed, Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

  • Mulatu L. Berihun
  • Assefa M. Melesse
  • Birhanu Zemadim
Part of the Springer Geography book series (SPRINGERGEOGR)


This chapter discusses the results of an experimental hydrological study in Dapo watershed located at the head of the upper Blue Nile Basin in Ethiopia. Detailed spatial measurements of rainfall and soil moisture were conducted at five rain gauge stations and fifteen soil moisture stations of varying depths. It was observed that there is relatively higher consistency of rainfall data in four manual rain gauge stations. Spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture (%) shows uniform pattern of distribution at different sample depths and most of the stations showed high degree of correlation between the station values. However, unlike the soil moisture, the groundwater level at three automatic monitoring stations showed relatively differing pattern of distribution as indicated by the low degree of correlation among station values. Measurements also showed that the baseflow contribution is greater than the direct runoff contribution at the outlet of the watershed indicating streamflow generation in the watershed dominated by subsurface flow.


Hydrological processes Dapo watershed Blue Nile River basin Rainfall Soil moisture Groundwater Baseflow 



We would like to express our appreciation to the International Water Management Institute for providing the primary data and Diga research field data observers. Special thanks go to Diga catchment coordinator Mr. Tolera Megersa for providing the necessary material for the study. This chapter is part of the thesis work by the first author.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mulatu L. Berihun
    • 1
  • Assefa M. Melesse
    • 2
  • Birhanu Zemadim
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Civil and Water Resources Engineering, Bahir Dar Institute of TechnologyBahir Dar UniversityBahir DarEthiopia
  2. 2.Department of Earth and EnvironmentFlorida International UniversityFloridaUSA
  3. 3.International Crops Research Institute for the Semi- Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)BamakoMali

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