Balanced Walking with Capture Steps

  • Marcell Missura
  • Sven Behnke
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8992)


Bipedal walking is one of the most essential skills required to play soccer with humanoid robots. Superior walking speed and stability often gives teams the winning edge when their robots are the first at the ball, maintain ball control, and drive the ball towards the opponent goal with sure feet. In this contribution, we present an implementation of our Capture Step Framework on a real soccer robot, and show robust omnidirectional walking. The robot not only manages to locomote on an even surface, but can also cope with various disturbances, such as pushes, collisions, and stepping on the feet of an opponent. The actuation is compliant and the robot walks with stretched knees.


Inertial Measurement Unit Support Exchange Real Robot Zero Moment Point Double Support Phase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Missura, M., Behnke, S.: Omnidirectional capture steps for bipedal walking. In: IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots (Humanoids) (2013)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kajita, S., Kanehiro, F., Kaneko, K., Fujiwara, K., Harada, K., Yokoi, K.: Biped walking pattern generation by using preview control of zero-moment point. In: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) (2003)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wieber, P.-B.: Trajectory free linear model predictive control for stable walking in the presence of strong perturbations. In: Humanoids (2006)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hirai, K., Hirose, M., Haikawa, Y., Takenaka, T.: The development of Honda humanoid robot. In: ICRA (1998)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kajita, S., Morisawa, M., Miura, K., Nakaoka, S., Harada, K., Kaneko, K., Kanehiro, F., Yokoi, K.: Biped walking stabilization based on linear inverted pendulum tracking. In: IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) (2010)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Park, I.-W., Kim, J.-Y., Lee, J., Oh, J.-H.: Mechanical design of humanoid robot platform KHR-3 (KAIST humanoid robot 3: HUBO). In: Humanoids (2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Diedam, H., Dimitrov, D., Wieber, P.-B., Mombaur, K., Diehl, M.: Online walking gait generation with adaptive foot positioning through linear model predictive control. In: IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) (2008)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Morisawa, M., Kanehiro, F., Kaneko, K., Mansard, N., Sola, J., Yoshida, E., Yokoi, K., Laumond, J.-P.: Combining suppression of the disturbance and reactive stepping for recovering balance. In: IROS (2010)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stephens, B.J., Atkeson, C.G.: Push recovery by stepping for humanoid robots with force controlled joints. In: Humanoids (2010)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Urata, J., Nishiwaki, K., Nakanishi, Y., Okada, K., Kagami, S., Inaba, M.: Online decision of foot placement using singular LQ preview regulation. In: IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots (Humanoids) (2011)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Englsberger, J., Ott, C., Roa, M.A., Albu-Schäffer, A., Hirzinger, G.: Bipedal walking control based on capture point dynamics. In: IROS (2011)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Missura, M., Behnke, S.: Self-stable omnidirectional walking with compliant joints. In: Workshop on Humanoid Soccer Robots, Atlanta, USA (2013)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Behnke, S.: Online trajectory generation for omnidirectional biped walking. In: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) (2006)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Graf, C., Härtl, A., Röfer, T., Laue, T.: A robust closed-loop gait for the standard platform league humanoid. In: Workshop on Humanoid Soccer Robots (2009)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yi, S.-J., Zhang, B.-T., Hong, D., Lee, D.D.: Online learning of a full body push recovery controller for omnidirectional walking. In: Humanoids (2011)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dong, H., Zhao, M., Zhang, N.: High-speed and energy-efficient biped locomotion based on virtual slope walking. Auton. Robot. 30(2), 199–216 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Missura, M., Behnke, S.: Dynaped demonstrates lateral capture steps.
  18. 18.
    Missura, M., Behnke, S.: Walking with capture steps.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Autonomous Intelligent Systems, Computer ScienceUniversity of BonnBonnGermany

Personalised recommendations