What Do Practitioners Vary in Using Scrum?

  • Philipp Diebold
  • Jan-Peter Ostberg
  • Stefan WagnerEmail author
  • Ulrich Zendler
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing book series (LNBIP, volume 212)


Background: Agile software development has become a popular way of developing software. Scrum is the most frequently used agile framework, but it is often reported to be adapted in practice. Objective: Thus, we aim to understand how Scrum is adapted in different contexts and what are the reasons for these changes. Method: Using a structured interview guideline, we interviewed ten German companies about their concrete usage of Scrum and analysed the results qualitatively. Results: All companies vary Scrum in some way. The least variations are in the Sprint length, events, team size and requirements engineering. Many users varied the roles, effort estimations and quality assurance. Conclusions: Many variations constitute a substantial deviation from Scrum as initially proposed. For some of these variations, there are good reasons. Sometimes, however, the variations are a result of a previous non-agile, hierarchical organisation.


Agile processes Scrum variations Industrial case study 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philipp Diebold
    • 1
  • Jan-Peter Ostberg
    • 2
  • Stefan Wagner
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ulrich Zendler
    • 2
  1. 1.Fraunhofer Institute for Experimental Software Engineering IESEKaiserslauternGermany
  2. 2.University of StuttgartStuttgartGermany

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