Hypoxia and Inflammation-Induced Disruptions of the Blood-Brain and Blood-Cerebrospinal Fluid Barriers Assessed Using a Novel T1-Based MRI Method

  • Nabeela Nathoo
  • Hamza Jalal
  • Sirajedin S. Natah
  • Qiong Zhang
  • Ying Wu
  • Jeff F. Dunn
Part of the Acta Neurochirurgica Supplement book series (NEUROCHIRURGICA, volume 121)


Subtle blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is involved in numerous neurological conditions. This disruption is found diffusely in the brain and requires quantitative methods for assessment. We propose a statistical method to identify individual voxels where the BBB is disrupted using T1-weighted MRI. We used models of severe and focal vs. mild and generalized disruption of the BBB to show proof of principle with the cold injury model, hypoxia, and a model of inflammation using low- and high-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. Using voxel-based analysis, we found that mild hypoxia resulted in diffuse disruption of the BBB, whereas more severe hypoxia and high-dose LPS treatment resulted in prominent leakage, particularly in the periventricular area, suggestive of blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier disruption. Our data suggest that the periventricular area may be compromised first in conditions of inflammation and hypoxia. Voxel-based analysis could be used in future studies assessing subtle blood-CSF or BBB disruption.


Blood-brain barrier Blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier Hypoxia Inflammation Lipopolysaccharide MRI Periventricular Sodium fluorescein 



This work was supported by Alberta-Innovates Health Solutions and the National Science and Engineering Research Council Canada.

Conflict of Interest



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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nabeela Nathoo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hamza Jalal
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sirajedin S. Natah
    • 3
  • Qiong Zhang
    • 4
  • Ying Wu
    • 1
  • Jeff F. Dunn
    • 2
    • 5
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  2. 2.Hotchkiss Brain InstituteUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  3. 3.Department of PhysiologyUmm-Alqura UniversityMakkahSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.General ElectricBeijingChina
  5. 5.Experimental Imaging CentreUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

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