Query-Subquery Nets with Stratified Negation

  • Son Thanh CaoEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 358)


In this paper, we incorporate the concept of stratified negation into query-subquery nets to obtain an evaluation method called QSQN-STR for dealing with stratified knowledge bases. Particularly, we extend query-subquery nets by allowing negated atoms in the bodies of some program clauses. The empirical results illustrate the usefulness of the method.


Horn knowledge bases deductive databases query processing stratified negation QSQN QSQN-STR 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Abiteboul, S., Hull, R., Vianu, V.: Foundations of Databases. Addison Wesley (1995)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Apt, K.R., Blair, H.A., Walker, A.: Towards a Theory of Declarative Knowledge. In: Found. of Deductive Databases and Logic Programming, pp. 89–148 (1988)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Apt, K.R., Bol, R.: Logic programming and negation: A survey. Journal of Logic Programming 19, 9–71 (1994)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bailey, J., Bry, F., Furche, T., Schaffert, S.: Semantic web query languages. In: Encyclopedia of Database Systems, pp. 2583–2586. Springer US (2009)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Balbin, I., Port, G.S., Ramamohanarao, K., Meenakshi, K.: Efficient bottom-up computation of queries on stratified databases. J. Log. Program. 11(3-4), 295–344 (1991)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bry, F., Furche, T., Ley, C., Marnette, B., Linse, B., Schaffert, S.: Datalog relaunched: Simulation unification and value invention. In: de Moor, O., Gottlob, G., Furche, T., Sellers, A. (eds.) Datalog 2010. LNCS, vol. 6702, pp. 321–350. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cao, S.T.: On the efficiency of Query-Subquery Nets: an experimental point of view. In: Proceedings of SoICT 2013, pp. 148–157. ACM (2013)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cao, S.T.: An Implementation of the QSQN-STR Evaluation Methods (2014),
  9. 9.
    Cao, S.T., Nguyen, L.A.: An Improved Depth-First Control Strategy for Query-Subquery Nets in Evaluating Queries to Horn Knowledge Bases. In: van Do, T., Le Thi, H.A., Nguyen, N.T. (eds.) Advanced Computational Methods for Knowledge Engineering. AISC, vol. 282, pp. 281–295. Springer, Heidelberg (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cao, S.T., Nguyen, L.A.: An Empirical Approach to Query-Subquery Nets with Tail-Recursion Elimination. In: Bassiliades, N., Ivanovic, M., Kon-Popovska, M., Manolopoulos, Y., Palpanas, T., Trajcevski, G., Vakali, A. (eds.) New Trends in Database and Information Systems II. AISC, vol. 312, pp. 109–120. Springer, Heidelberg (2015)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cao, S.T., Nguyen, L.A., Szalas, A.: The Web Ontology Rule Language OWL 2 RL+ and Its Extensions. T. Comp. Collective Intelligence 13, 152–175 (2014)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cao, S.T., Nguyen, L.A., Szalas, A.: WORL: a nonmonotonic rule language for the Semantic Web. Vietnam J. Computer Science 1(1), 57–69 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chen, Y.: Magic sets and stratified databases. Int. Journal of Intelligent Systems 12(3), 203–231 (1997)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Eiter, T., Ianni, G., Lukasiewicz, T., Schindlauer, R.: Well-founded semantics for description logic programs in the Semantic Web. ACM Trans. Comput. Log. 12(2), 11 (2011)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gelder, A.V., Ross, K.A., Schlipf, J.S.: The well-founded semantics for general logic programs. J. ACM 38(3), 619–649 (1991)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gelfond, M., Lifschitz, V.: The stable model semantics for logic programming. In: Proceedings of Logic Programming Symposium, pp. 1070–1080. MIT Press (1988)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Green, T.J., Huang, S.S., Loo, B.T., Zhou, W.: Datalog and Recursive Query Processing. Foundations and Trends in Databases 5(2), 105–195 (2013)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kerisit, J.M., Pugin, J.M.: Efficient query answering on stratified databases. In: FGCS 1988, pp. 719–726 (1988)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Madalińska-Bugaj, E., Nguyen, L.A.: A generalized QSQR evaluation method for Horn knowledge bases. ACM Trans. on Computational Logic 13(4), 32 (2012)MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Naqvi, S.: A logic for negation in database system. In: Foundations of Deductive Data-bases and Logic Programming (1987)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nguyen, L.A., Cao, S.T.: Query-Subquery Nets. In: Nguyen, N.-T., Hoang, K., Jędrzejowicz, P. (eds.) ICCCI 2012, Part I. LNCS, vol. 7653, pp. 239–248. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ramamohanarao, K., Harland, J.: An Introduction to Deductive Database Languages and Systems. The VLDB Journal 3(2), 107–122 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ruckhaus, E., Ruiz, E., Vidal, M.-E.: Query evaluation and optimization in the semantic web. Theory Pract. Log. Program. 8(3), 393–409 (2008)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sáenz-Pérez, F., et al.: Datalog Educational System: A Deductive Database System (2014),

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Information TechnologyVinh UniversityVinhVietnam
  2. 2.Institute of InformaticsUniversity of WarsawWarsawPoland

Personalised recommendations