Advertisement

Colonoscopy

  • Omer EnginEmail author
  • Mebrure Evnur Uyar
  • Oguzhan Sunamak
  • Fuat Ipekci

Abstract

Colonoscopy is the process of investigating the entire lumen of the large intestine, from the rectum to the cecum, for diagnosis and treatment. Specially developed flexible tools, with a light and camera on the tip, are used. Although colonoscopy is an invasive intervention, today it is a reliable and indispensable diagnostic procedure when it is performed by an experienced person or team with good equipment. For the detection of colon polyps and malignancies, it is more sensitive and specific than double-contrast barium enema, computed tomography, and virtual colonoscopy. It is a gold standard in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, such as lower gastrointestinal bleeding, polyps, and colon tumors. Unlike tomography, it does not require large machines or facilities and can be performed in an office or an endoscopy center. The importance of colonoscopy has become increasingly evident from the first application to the present day. An increasing number of colonoscopies are being performed, and more people are benefiting from colonoscopic examination.

Keywords

Ulcerative Colitis Irritable Bowel Syndrome Sigmoid Colon Ischemic Colitis Medullary Thyroid Cancer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Maksimovic J, Maksimovic M. From history of proctology. Arch Oncol. 2013;21(1):28–33.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ellesmore S, Windsor ACJ. Surgical history of haemorrhoids. In: Mann CV, editor. Surgical treatment of haemorrhoids. Great Britain: Springer 2; 2005.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Historical collections at the Claude Moore Health Science Library. University of Virginia. From: http://exhibits.hsl.virginia.edu/romansurgical/. Available 8 Sept 2014.
  4. 4.
    Classen M. Fibreendoscopy of the intestines. Gut. 1971;12(4):330–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    De Palma FJ, Elfant AB. Gastrointestinal endoscopy. In: Parrillo JE, Phillip Dellinger R, editors. Critical care medicine: principles of diagnosis and management in the adult. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2014. p. 228–37.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wolf WI. Colonoscopy: history and development. Am J Gastroenterol. 1989;84(9).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Parrillo JE, Phillip Dellinger R. Critical care medicine: principles of diagnosis and management in the adult. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2014. p. 228–37.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Edmonston MJ. History of the instruments for gastrointestinal endoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc. 1991;37(2):27.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lau WY, Leow CK, Li AKC. History of endoscopic and laparoscopic surgery. World J Surg. 1997;21:444–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Barnet J. Atlas of colonoscopy: examination techniques and diagnosis. Stutgard: Stuttgart: Thieme; 2006.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Waye JD, Williams CB. Colonoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy. In: Yamada T, editor. Atlas of gastroenterology. 4th ed. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2009.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hunt RH, Waye JD. Colonoscopy—techniques, clinical practice and color atlas. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers; 1981.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tanaka S, Haruma K, Oka S, Takahashi R, Kunihiro M, Kitadai Y, Yoshihara M, Shimamoto F, Chayama K. Clinicopathologic features and endoscopic treatment of superficially spreading colorectal neoplasms larger than 20 mm. Gastrointest Endosc. 2001;54(1):62–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Al-Shamali MA, Kalaoui M, Hasan F, Khajah A, Siddiqe I, Al-Nakeeb B. Colonoscopy: evaluating indications and diagnostic yield. Ann Saudi Med. 2001;21(5/6):304–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Indications and contraindications for colonoscopy. From: www.epage.ch. Available 6 June 2014.
  16. 16.
    Balaguer F, Llach J, Castells A, Bordas JM, Ppellise M, Rodríguez‐Moranta F, Mata A, Fernández-Esparrach G, Ginès A, Pique JM. The European Panel on the Appropriateness of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy guidelines colonoscopy in an open‐access endoscopy unit: a prospective study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005;21(5):609–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Park JH. Role of colonoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric lower gastrointestinal disorders. Korean J Pediatr. 2010;53(9):824–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Colonoscopy,Indications and contraindications. http://www.gastrohep.com/ebooks/ebook.asp?book=1405120800&id=2. Available 6 June 2014.
  19. 19.
    Classen M, Tytgat GNJ, Lightdale CJ. Medical gastroenterological endoscopy. Stuttgart: Thieme; 2002. p. 136.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    WHO. Haemoglobin concentrations for the diagnosis of anaemia and assessment of severity. Vitamin and mineral nutrition information system. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011. WHO/NMH/NHD/MNM/11.1. http://www.who.int/vmnis/indicators/haemoglobin.pdf. Accessed 6 June 2014.
  21. 21.
    Keskin A, Polat A, Turk T, Sermez Y. Demir Eksikliginin Erken Teshisinde Eritrosit Dagilim Genişliği (RDW)’nin Değeri. Turkiye Tip Dergisi. 2000;7(2):75–7.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pritchard CC, Kroh E, Wood B, Arroyo JD, Dougherty KJ, Miyaji MM, Tait JF, Tewari M. Blood cell origin of circulating microRNAs: a cautionary note for cancer biomarker studies. Cancer Prev Res. 2012;5(3):492–7.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Resar MLS. Anemia: pathophysiology & diagnostic classification. Hopkinsmedicine. http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/hematology/fellows/summer%20course/slides/Resar_AnemiaPathophysiologyEvaluation%2007.09.12.pdf. Available 6 June 2014.
  24. 24.
    Nayak R, Rai S, Gupta A. Essentials in hematology and clinical pathology. New Delhi: JP Medical Ltd; 2012.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Beutler E, Luzzatto L. Hemolytic anemia. In: Iron disorders institute guide to anemia. Illionis USA:Sourcebooks;2009. p. 221.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Andrès E, Loukili NH, Noel E, Kaltenbach G, Abdelgheni MB, Perrin AE, Noblet-Dick M, Maloisel F, Schlienger J-L, Blicklé JF. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency in elderly patients. Can Med Assoc J. 2004;171(3):251–9.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hvas AM, Nexo E. Diagnosis and treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency–an update. Haematologica. 2006;91(11):1506–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Varis K, Samloff IM, Ihämaki T, Siurala M. An appraisal of tests for severe atrophic gastritis in relatives of patients with pernicious anemia. Dig Dis Sci. 1979;24(3):187–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Walker IR, Strickland RG, Ungar B, Mackay IR. Simple atrophic gastritis and gastric carcinoma. Gut. 1971;12(11):906–11.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    De Block CE, De Leeuw IH, Van Gaal LF. Autoimmune gastritis in type 1 diabetes: a clinically oriented review. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol. 2008;93(2):363–71.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Van den Driessche A, Eenkhoorn V, Van Gaal L, De Block C. Type 1 diabetes and autoimmune polyglandular syndrome: a clinical review. Neth J Med. 2009;67(11):376–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Neumann WL, Coss E, Rugge M, Genta RM. Autoimmune atrophic gastritis—pathogenesis, pathology and management. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;10(9):529–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Massironi S, Cavalcoli F, Rossi RE, Conte D, Spampatti MP, Ciafardini C, Verga U, Beck-Peccoz P, Peracchi M. Chronic autoimmune atrophic gastritis associated with primary hyperparathyroidism: a transversal prospective study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2013;168(5):755–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sarı O, Tanoğlu A, İnal V, Türkoğlu Hİ, Öztürk B, Sağlam K. GATA Acil Dahiliye Kliniğinde üst gastrointestinal sistem kanaması nedeniyle 1998–2005 yılları arasında takip edilen hastaların sosyodemografik özelliklerinin incelenmesi. Gülhane Tıp Dergisi. 2007;49:226–31.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Feinman M, Haut ER. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Surg Clin North Am. 2014;94(1):55–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Weiss G. Monitoring iron therapy in chronic heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail. 2013;15(7):711–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Alleyne M, Horne MK, Miller JL. Individualized treatment for iron-deficiency anemia in adults. Am J Med. 2008;121(11):943–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gordon AJ, Gordon JM, Broyles ELM. Medical consequences of unhealthy alcohol. In: Addressing unhealthy alcohol use in primary care. New York: Springer; 2013. p. 107–18.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Matheson EM, Mainous AG, Everett CJ, King DE. Tea and coffee consumption and MRSA nasal carriage. Ann Fam Med. 2011;9(4):299–304.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Goddard AF, James MW, McIntyre AS, Scott BB. Guidelines for the management of iron deficiency anaemia. Gut. 2011;60(10):1309–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pasricha SR, Flecknoe-Brown SC, Allen KJ, Gibson PR, McMahon LP, Olynyk JK, Roger SD, Savoia HF, Tampi R, Thomson AR, Wood EM, Robinson KL. Diagnosis and management of iron deficiency anaemia: a clinical update. Med J Aust. 2010;193(9):525–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Raje D, Mukhtar H, Oshowo A, Clark CI. What proportion of patients referred to secondary care with iron deficiency anemia have colon cancer? Dis Colon Rectum. 2007;50(8):1211–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    MacLean A. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding. American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons, 2011. www.fascrs.org. 6 June 2014.
  44. 44.
    Zhou FR, Huang LY, Xie HZ. Meckel’s diverticulum bleeding diagnosed with magnetic resonance enterography: a case report. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19(17):2727.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Krishna RP, Singh RK, Ghoshal UC. Recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding from idiopathic ileocolonic varices: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2010;4(1):1–4.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kerlin MP, Tokar JL. Acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159(3):ITC2–1.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Read RC. Systemic hernial disease protects against cancer: an hypothesis. Hernia. 2010;14(2):119–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mosadeghi Sasan, Bhuket Taft, Stollman Neil. Diverticular disease: evolving concepts in classification, presentation, and management. Current opinion in gastroenterology, 2015;31(1):50–55.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Niikura R, Nagata N, Akiyama J, Shimbo T, Uemura N. Hypertension and concomitant arteriosclerotic diseases are risk factors for colonic diverticular bleeding: a case–control study. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2012;27(9):1137–43.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Radhi JM, Ramsay JA, Boutross-Tadross O. Diverticular disease of the right colon. BMC Res Notes. 2011;4(1):383.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ishii N, Setoyama T, Deshpande GA, Omata F, Matsuda M, Suzuki S, Uemura M, Iizuka Y, Fukuda K, Suzuki K, Fujita Y. Endoscopic band ligation for colonic diverticular hemorrhage. Gastrointest Endosc. 2012;75(2):382–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Setoyama T, Ishii N, Fujita Y. Enodoscopic band ligation (EBL) is superior to endoscopic clipping for the treatment of colonic diverticular hemorrhage. Surg Endosc. 2011;25(11):3574–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Yu BH, Shin SJ, Lee KW, Ryoo KH, Wi JO, Yoo JH, Choi JW. A large polypoid vascular ectasia removed by using a polypectomy with a detachable snare in an asymptomatic patient. Ann Coloproctol. 2013;29(1):31–3.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gordon FH, Watkinson A, Hodgson H. Vascular malformations of the gastrointestinal tract. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2001;15(1):41–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gong EJ, Kim DH, Jung HY, Choi KD, Song HJ, Lee GH, Kim JH, Park HS. An arteriovenous malformation in the jejunum mimicking a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Korean J Gastroenterol. 2014;63(1):42–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Diggs NG, Holub JL, Lieberman DA, Eisen GM, Strate LL. Factors that contribute to blood loss in patients with colonic angiodysplasia from a population-based study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;9(5):415–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dy NM, Gostout CJ, Balm RK. Bleeding from the endoscopically-identified Dieulafoy lesion of the proximal small intestine and colon. Am J Gastroenterol. 1995;90(1):108–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Team, G. B. Endoscopic management of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103:1881–7.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Abi-akar R, El-rassi I, Karam N, Jassar Y, Slim R, Jebara V. Treatment of Heyde’s syndrome by aortic valve replacement. Curr Cardiol Rev. 2011;7(1):47.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Morishima A, Marui A, Shimamoto T, Saji Y, Tambara K, Nishina T, Komeda M. Successful aortic valve replacement for Heyde syndrome with confirmed hematologic recovery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;83(1):287–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Massyn MW, Khan SA. Heyde syndrome: a common diagnosis in older patients with severe aortic stenosis. Age Ageing. 2009;38(3):267–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sami SS, Al‐Araji SA, Ragunath K. Review article: gastrointestinal angiodysplasia–pathogenesis, diagnosis and management. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2014;39(1):15–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Dray X, Camus M, Coelho J, Ozenne V, Pocard M, Marteau P. Treatment of gastrointestinal angiodysplasia and unmet needs. Dig Liver Dis. 2011;43(7):515–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hauschild T, Vargo D. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding. In: Common problems in acute care surgery. New York: Springer; 2013. p. 359–71.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Fearnhead NS. Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Medicine. 2011;39(2):101–4.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chavalitdhamrong D, Jensen DM, Kovacs TO, Jutabha R, Dulai G, Ohning G, Machicado GA. Ischemic colitis is a common cause of severe hematochezia and patient outcomes are worse than with other colonic diagnoses. Gastrointest Endosc. 2011;74(4):852.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Brandt LJ, Feuerstadt P, Blaszka MC. Anatomic patterns, patient characteristics, and clinical outcomes in ischemic colitis: a study of 313 cases supported by histology. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105(10):2245–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gandhi SK, Hanson MM, Vernava AM, Kaminski DL, Longo WE. Ischemic colitis. Dis Colon Rectum. 1996;39(1):88–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Green BT, Tendler DA. Ischemic colitis: a clinical review. South Med J. 2005;98(2):217–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Scowcroft CW, Sanowski RA, Kozarek RA. Colonoscopy in ischemic colitis. Gastrointest Endosc. 1981;27(3):156–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Díaz Nieto R, Varcada M, Ogunbiyi OA, Winslet MC. Systematic review on the treatment of ischaemic colitis. Colorectal Dis. 2011;13(7):744–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Giusti S, Tani U, Neri E. Inflammatory bowel diseases. In: CT colonography atlas. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 75–83.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Aratari A, Papi C, Clemente V, Moretti A, Luchetti R, Koch M, Capurso L, Caprilli R. Colectomy rate in acute severe ulcerative colitis in the infliximab era. Dig Liver Dis. 2008;40(10):821–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Laharie D, Bourreille A, Branche J, Allez M, Bouhnik Y, Filippi J, Zerbib F, Savoye G, Nachury M, Moreau J, Delchier JC, Cosnes J, Ricart E, Dewit O, Lopez-Sanroman A, Dupas JL, Carbonnel F, Bommelaer G, Coffin B, Roblin X, Van Assche G, Esteve M, Färkkilä M, Gisbert JP, Marteau P, Nahon S, de Vos M, Franchimont D, Mary JY, Colombel JF, Lémann M. Ciclosporin versus infliximab in patients with severe ulcerative colitis refractory to intravenous steroids: a parallel, open-label randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2012;380(9857):1909–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Van Assche G, Vermeire S, Rutgeerts P. Management of acute severe ulcerative colitis. Gut. 2011;60(1):130–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lichtenstein GR, Hanauer SB, Sandborn WJ. Management of Crohn’s disease in adults. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104(2):465–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Barnert J, Messmann H. Management of lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2008;22(2):295–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Menezes M, Tareen F, Saeed A, Khan N, Puri P. Symptomatic Meckel’s diverticulum in children: a 16-year review. Pediatr Surg Int. 2008;24(5):575–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Arakawa D, Ohmiya N, Nakamura M, Honda W, Shirai O, Itoh A, Hirooka Y, Niwa Y, Maeda O, Ando T, Goto H. Outcome after enteroscopy for patients with obscure GI bleeding: diagnostic comparison between double-balloon endoscopy and videocapsule endoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2009;69(4):866–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Chan KW, Lee KH, Mou JWC, Cheung ST, Tam YH. Laparoscopic management of complicated Meckel’s diverticulum in children: a 10-year review. Surg Endosc. 2008;22(6):1509–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kopáčová M, Vykouřil L, Vacek Z, Tyčová V, Bártová J, Rejchrt S, Bureš J. Inverted Meckel’s diverticulum with ectopic pancreatic tissue as a source of severe gastrointestinal bleeding. J Gastrointest Surg. 2010;14(3):578–81.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Neoplasm. From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neoplasm#cite_note-2. Available 21 June 2014.
  83. 83.
    Neoplasms. From: http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd10/browse/2010/en#/II. Available 21 June 2014.
  84. 84.
    Team, GI Bleeding. Endoscopic management of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103:1881–7.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Barnert J, Messmann H. Diagnosis and management of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;6(11):637–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Latt TT, Nicholl R, Domizio P, Walker-Smith JA, Williams CB. Rectal bleeding and polyps. Arch Dis Child. 1993;69(1):144–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Pashankar D, Murphy JJ, Ostry A, Schreiber RA. Life-threatening gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to juvenile polyposis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000;95(2):543–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Eigenmann PA, Lecoultre C, Cox J, Dederding JP, Belli DC. Solitary rectal ulcer: an unusual cause of rectal bleeding in children. Eur J Pediatr. 1992;151(9):658–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Keane RM, Britton DC. Massive bleeding from rectal varices following repeated injection sclerotherapy of oesophageal varices. Br J Surg. 1986;73(2):120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Kaiser GL, Kaiser GL. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding (melena). In: Symptoms and signs in pediatric surgery. Berlin: Springer; 2012. p. 385–406.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Avital S, Inbar R, Karin E, Greenberg R. Five-year follow-up of Doppler-guided hemorrhoidal artery ligation. Tech Coloproctol. 2012;16(1):61–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Geisler WM, Kapil R, Waites KB, Smith PD. Chronic rectal bleeding due to lymphogranuloma venereum proctocolitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012;107(3):488–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kong AP, Stamos MJ. Anorectal complaints: office diagnosis and treatment, part 2. Consultant. 2012;52:567–70.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Isenberg GA. Anorectal disease. Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 2011;24(01):003–4.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Patel D, Cello JP. 12 infectious colitis. In: Diseases of the colon. USA: Taylor Francis group; 2006. p. 279–297.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Nagata N, Shimbo T, Sekine K, Tanaka S, Niikura R, Mezaki K, Morino E, Yazaki H, Igari T, Ohmagari N, Akiyama J, Oka S, Uemura N. Combined endoscopy, aspiration, and biopsy analysis for identifying infectious colitis in patients with ileocecal ulcers. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;11(6):673–80.e2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Triadafilopoulos G. Management of lower gastrointestinal bleeding in older adults. Drugs Aging. 2012;29(9):707–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Farrell JJ, Friedman LS. Review article: the management of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005;21(11):1281–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Spyropoulos BG, Misiakos EP, Fotiadis C, Stoidis CN. Antioxidant properties of probiotics and their protective effects in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced enteritis and colitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2011;56(2):285–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lam MC, Parliament M, Wong CK. Argon plasma coagulation for the treatment of hemorrhagic radiation colitis. Case Rep Gastroenterol. 2012;6(2):446–51.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Lopes LM, Ramada JM, Certo MG, Pereira PR, Soares JM, Ribeiro M, Areias J, Pinho C. Massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding from idiopathic ileocolonic varix: report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum. 2006;49(4):524–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Konishi H, Kikuchi S, Miyashita A, Ichikawa D, Fujiwara H, Kubota T, Ochiai T, Kokuba Y, Yasukawa S, Yanagisawa A, Otsuji E. Minimally invasive surgery for obscure idiopathic ileal varices diagnosed by capsule endoscopy and double balloon endoscopy: report of a case. Surg Today. 2010;40(11):1088–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Akkuçücuk S, Aydogan A, Paltacı I, Temiz M. Alt gastrointestinal sistem kanaması ile karakterize kolonda yaygın idyopatik varisler. Ulusal Cer Derg. 2013. doi: 10.5152/UCD.2013.26.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Berezin S, Glassman MS, Slim MS, Newman LJ. Colonic hematoma after blunt abdominal trauma. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1992;15(1):100–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Engin O, Ipekci F, Calik B, Ucar AD, Tekin V. Features of the cases injured by stab wounds. J Univ Surg. 2012;1(1):1–6.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Ballas M, Kraut EH. Bleeding and bruising: a diagnostic work-up. Am Fam Physician. 2008;77(8):1117–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Seligsohn U, Coller BS. Classification, clinical manifestations and evaluation of disorders of hemostasis. In: Williams hematology. New York: McGraw Hill; 2001. p. 1471–8.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Simpson ML, Thompson AA. Recognition and management of hemophilia emergencies. Clin Pediatr Emerg Med. 2011;12(3):224–32.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    MacLean A. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding. American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons, 2011 http://www.fascrs.org/physicians/education/core_subjects/2010/Lower_Gastrointestinal_Bleeding/. Available 10 Sept 2014.
  110. 110.
    Iqbal CW, Chun YS, Farley DR. Colonoscopic perforations: a retrospective review. J Gastrointest Surg. 2005;9(9):1229–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Santos CHMD. Ileal ulcer in asymptomatic individuals. Is this Crohn? J Coloproctol (Rio J). 2012;32(2):119–22.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Zanati SA, Martin JA, Baker JP, Streutker CJ, Marcon NE. Colonoscopic diagnosis of mucocele of the appendix. Gastrointest Endosc. 2005;62(3):452–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Pimentel M, Lembo A, Chey WD, Zakko S, Ringel Y, Yu J, Mareya SM, Shaw AL, Bortey E, Forbes WP. Rifaximin therapy for patients with irritable bowel syndrome without constipation. N Engl J Med. 2011;364(1):22–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ford AC, Talley NJ. Mucosal inflammation as a potential etiological factor in irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review. J Gastroenterol. 2011;46(4):421–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Chey WD, Lembo AJ, Lavins BJ, Shiff SJ, Kurtz CB, Currie MG, MacDougall JE, Jia XD, Shao JZ, Fitch DA, Baird MJ, Schneier HA, Johnston JM. Linaclotide for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation: a 26-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate efficacy and safety. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012;107(11):1702–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Halpin SJ, Ford AC. Prevalence of symptoms meeting criteria for irritable bowel syndrome in inflammatory bowel disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012;107(10):1474–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Ishihara S, Yashima K, Kushiyama Y, Izumi A, Kawashima K, Fujishiro H, Kojo H, Komazawa Y, Hamamoto T, Yamamoto T, Sasaki Y, Shimizu T, Okamoto E, Yoshimura T, Furuta K, Noguchi N, Tanaka H, Murawaki Y, Kinoshita Y. Prevalence of organic colonic lesions in patients meeting Rome III criteria for diagnosis of IBS: a prospective multi-center study utilizing colonoscopy. J Gastroenterol. 2012;47(10):1084–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Limsui D, Pardi DS, Camilleri M, Loftus Jr EV, Kammer PP, Tremaine WJ, Sandborn WJ. Symptomatic overlap between irritable bowel syndrome and microscopic colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2007;13(2):175–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Chadwick VS, Chen W, Shu D, Paulus B, Bethwaite P, Tie A, Wilson I. Activation of the mucosal immune system in irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2002;122(7):1778–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Spiller RC, Jenkins D, Thornley JP, Hebden JM, Wright T, Skinner M, Neal KR. Increased rectal mucosal enteroendocrine cells, T lymphocytes, and increased gut permeability following acute Campylobacter enteritis and in post-dysenteric irritable bowel syndrome. Gut. 2000;47(6):804–11.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    MacIntosh DG, Thompson WG, Patel DG, Barr R, Guindi M. Is rectal biopsy necessary in irritable bowel syndrome? Am J Gastroenterol. 1992;87(10):1407–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Yen EF, Pardi DS. Review article: microscopic colitis–lymphocytic, collagenous and ‘mast cell’ colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011;34(1):21–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Grundmann O, Yoon SL. Irritable bowel syndrome: epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment: an update for health‐care practitioners. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;25(4):691–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Ruepert L, Quartero AO, de Wit NJ, van der Heijden GJ, Rubin G, Muris JW. Bulking agents, antispasmodics and antidepressants for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(8):CD003460. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003460.pub3
  125. 125.
    Clarke G, Cryan JF, Dinan TG, Quigley EM. Review article: probiotics for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome–focus on lactic acid bacteria. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012;35(4):403–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Lohsiriwat V. Hemorrhoids: from basic pathophysiology to clinical management. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18(17):2009.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Lu M, Shi GY, Wang GQ, Wu Y, Liu Y, Wen H. Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy with anal cushion suspension and partial internal sphincter resection for circumferential mixed hemorrhoids. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19(30):5011.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Giamundo P, Salfi R, Geraci M, Tibaldi L, Murru L, Valente M. The hemorrhoid laser procedure technique vs rubber band ligation: a randomized trial comparing 2 mini-invasive treatments for second-and third-degree hemorrhoids. Dis Colon Rectum. 2011;54(6):693–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Yang HK. Indications for the treatment of hemorrhoids. In: Hemorrhoids. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 41–5.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Hernández-Bernal F, Castellanos-Sierra G, Valenzuela-Silva CM, Catasús-Álvarez KM, Valle-Cabrera R, Aguilera-Barreto A, López-Saura PA, THERESA-3 Group of Investigators. Recombinant streptokinase vs phenylephrine-based suppositories in acute hemorrhoids, randomized, controlled trial (THERESA-3). World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20(6):1594.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Nelson RL, Abcarian H, Abcarian H. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence of fistula in ano. In: Anal fistula. New York: Springer; 2014. p. 1–3.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Abcarian H, Herold A. Anal fistula repair without sphincterotomy: the anal fistula plug. Gen Surg News. 2012;39(5):2–4.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Cintron JR, Abcarian H, Chaudhry V, Singer M, Hunt S, Birnbaum E, Mutch MG, Fleshman J. Treatment of fistula-in-ano using a porcine small intestinal submucosa anal fistula plug. Tech Coloproctol. 2013;17(2):187–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Zimmerman DDE, Mitalas L, Schouten WR. Reoperation in recurrent complex anal fistula. In: Reconstructive surgery of the rectum, anus and perineum. London: Springer; 2013. p. 381–97.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Grimaud JC, Munoz–Bongrand N, Siproudhis L, Abramowitz L, Sénéjoux A, Vitton V, Gambiez L, Flourié B, Hébuterne X, Louis E, Coffin B, De Parades V, Savoye G, Soulé JC, Bouhnik Y, Colombel JF, Contou JF, François Y, Mary JY, Lémann M. Fibrin glue is effective healing perianal fistulas in patients with Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterology. 2010;138(7):2275–81.e1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Leung L, Riutta T, Kotecha J, Rosser W. Chronic constipation: an evidence-based review. J Am Board Fam Med. 2011;24(4):436–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Guérin A, Mody R, Fok B, Lasch KL, Zhou Z, Wu EQ, Zhou W, Talley NJ. Risk of developing colorectal cancer and benign colorectal neoplasm in patients with chronic constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2014;40(1):83–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Tack J, Müller‐Lissner S, Stanghellini V, Boeckxstaens G, Kamm MA, Simrén M, Galmiche JP, Fried M. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic constipation–a European perspective. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2011;23(8):697–710.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Pradhan A, Karki S, Khaniya S. Colorectal signet ring cell carcinoma coexisting with tuberculosis. Health Renaiss. 2013;11(2):162–5.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Lipka S, Hajar R, Freedman L, Rizvon K, Mustacchia P. Unusual finding of Trichuris trichiura on colonoscopy in a patient with a recent change in bowel habits. Dig Endosc. 2013;25(2):210–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Yoon SL, Grundmann O, Koepp L, Farrell L. Management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adults: conventional and complementary/alternative approaches. Altern Med Rev. 2011;16(2):134–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Kamiya T. The overlap in the genetic pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. Dig Dis Sci. 2013;58(12):3379–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Shallow TA, Wagner Jr FB, Colcher RE. Clinical evaluation of 750 patients with colon cancer: diagnostic survey and follow-up covering a fifteen-year period*. Ann Surg. 1955;142(2):164.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Diarrhoea. From: http://www.who.int/topics/diarrhoea/en/. Available 6 July 2014.
  145. 145.
    Wadler S. Chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Gastroenterology. 2004;29:29–33.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Stein A, Voigt W, Jordan K. Chemotherapy-induced diarrhea: pathophysiology, frequency and guideline-based management. Ther Adv Med Oncol. 2010;2(1):51–63.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Cemotherapy and diarrhoea. From: http://kanser.gov.tr/Dosya/mucadelederken/kemoterapide_ishal_4.pdf. Available 6 July 2014.
  148. 148.
    Platts-Mills JA, Liu J, Houpt ER. New concepts in diagnostics for infectious diarrhea. Mucosal Immunol. 2013;6(5):876–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Uzunismail H. Kronik İshalli Hastaya Yaklaşım. Sempozyum Dizisi No: 58 l Kasım 2007. p. 59–68. http://www.ctf.edu.tr/stek/pdfs/58/5804.pdf. Available 7 July 2014.
  150. 150.
    Ersoy O, Arslan S. Kronik İshalli Hastaya Yaklaşım. Türkiye Tıp Dergisi. 2004;11(4):194–203.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Walsh JS, Newell-Price JD, DeBono M, Adaway J, Keevil B, Eastell R. Circulating serotonin and bone density, structure, and turnover in carcinoid syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol. 2013;98(7):2902–7.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Lynggård LA, Nielsen EH, Laurberg P. Carcinoid syndrome caused by a serotonin-secreting pituitary tumour. Eur J Endocrinol. 2014;170(2):K5–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Doherty GM. Neuroendocrine (carcinoid) tumors and the carcinoid syndrome. In: Cancer principles & practice of oncology. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011. p. 1503–15.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Datta S, Williams N, Suortamo S, Mahmood A, Oliver C, Hedley N, Ray P. Carcinoid syndrome from small bowel endocrine carcinoma in the absence of hepatic metastasis. Age Ageing. 2011;40(6):760–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Engin O, Ipekci F, Cengiz F, Calik B, Muratli A. Problems in the management of the appendiceal carcinoid tumors. J Univ Surg. 2012;1(1).Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Son HJ, Sohn DK, Hong CW, Han KS, Kim BC, Park JW, Choi HS, Chang HJ, Oh JH. Factors associated with complete local excision of small rectal carcinoid tumor. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2013;28(1):57–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Chen K, Qiu JL, Zhang Y, Zhao YW. Meta analysis of risk factors for colorectal cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2003;9(7):1598–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Daum S, Ullrich R, Heise W, Dederke B, Foss HD, Stein H, Thiel E, Zeitz M, Riecken EO. Intestinal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: a multicenter prospective clinical study from the German Study Group on Intestinal non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21(14):2740–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Kakugawa Y, Terasaka S, Watanabe T, Tanaka S, Taniguchi H, Saito Y. Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma in small intestine detected by capsule endoscopy. Leuk Lymphoma. 2012;53(8):1623–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Nguyen VX, Nguyen BD, De Petris G, Nguyen CC. Gastrointestinal: gastrointestinal involvement of mantle cell lymphoma. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;27(3):617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Harrison B, Carnaille B. Medullary thyroid cancer. In: Tips and tricks in endocrine surgery. London: Springer; 2014. p. 137–42.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Griebeler ML, Gharib H, Thompson GB. Medullary thyroid carcinoma. Endocr Pract. 2013;19(4):703–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Lam I, Chaing H, Wang C, Chang C. Medullary thyroid carcinoma with liver metastasis presenting as watery diarrhea for 1 year. Endocr Abstr. 2012;29:P868. Available 15 Sept 2014.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Grabowski P, Briest F, Baum RP, Zaknun JJ, Kulkarni HR, Zeitz M, Hörsch D. Vandetanib therapy in medullary thyroid cancer. Drugs Today (Barc). 2012;48(11):723–33.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Yao JC, Lombard-Bohas C, Baudin E, Kvols LK, Rougier P, Ruszniewski P, Hoosen S, St Peter J, Haas T, Lebwohl D, Van Cutsem E, Kulke MH, Hobday TJ, O’Dorisio TM, Shah MH, Cadiot G, Luppi G, Posey JA, Wiedenmann B. Daily oral everolimus activity in patients with metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors after failure of cytotoxic chemotherapy: a phase II trial. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(1):69–76.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Kon T, Wada R, Suzuki R, Nakayama Y, Ebina Y, Yagihashi S. VIP and calcitonin-producing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with watery diarrhea: clinicopathological features and the effect of somatostatin analogue. JOP. 2012;13(2):226–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Ende K, Henkel B, Brodhun M, Salomon C, Lauten P, Conrad E, Seifert M, Stier A, Scharf JG. A 45-year-Old female with hypokalemic rhabdomyolysis due to VIP-producing composite pheochromocytoma. Z Gastroenterol. 2012;50(06):589–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Gilroy RK. Chief Editor: Katz J, WDHA syndrome. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/183189-overview#a0101. Available 7 July 2014.
  169. 169.
    Hu J, Wu J, Cai L, Jiang L, Lang Z, Qu G, Liu H, Yao W, Yu G. Retroperitoneal composite pheochromocytoma-ganglioneuroma: a case report and review of literature. Diagn Pathol. 2013;8(1):63.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Kirkby-Bott J, Brunaud L, Mathonet M, Hamoir E, Kraimps JL, Trésallet C, Amar L, Rault A, Henry JF, Carnaille B. Ectopic hormone-secreting pheochromocytoma: a francophone observational study. World J Surg. 2012;36(6):1382–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Nojkov B, Onea M, Cappell MS. Random colonic mucosal biopsies during colonoscopy performed for chronic diarrhea: differences in practice patterns between gastroenterologists and surgeons in a study of 300 patients. Am J Gastroenterol. 2014;109(5):776–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Farmer RG, Easley KA, Rankin GB. Clinical patterns, natural history, and progression of ulcerative colitis. Dig Dis Sci. 1993;38(6):1137–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Feagan BG, Rutgeerts P, Sands BE, Hanauer S, Colombel JF, Sandborn WJ, Gert Van A, Jeffrey A, Hyo-Jong K, Silvio D, Irving F, Catherine M, Serap S, Tim W, Jing X, Parikh A. Vedolizumab as induction and maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis. N Engl J Med. 2013;369(8):699–710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Park SH, Kim YM, Yang SK, Kim SH, Byeon JS, Myung SJ, Cho YK, Yu CS, Choi KS, Chung JW, Kim B, Choi KD, Kim JH. Clinical features and natural history of ulcerative colitis in Korea. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2007;13(3):278–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Marteau P, Probert CS, Lindgren S, Gassul M, Tan TG, Dignass A, Befrits R, Midhagen G, Rademaker J, Foldager M. Combined oral and enema treatment with Pentasa (mesalazine) is superior to oral therapy alone in patients with extensive mild/moderate active ulcerative colitis: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study. Gut. 2005;54(7):960–5.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Jiang XL, Cui HF. An analysis of 10218 ulcerative colitis cases in China. World J Gastroenterol. 2002;8(1):158–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Haskell H, Andrews Jr CW, Reddy SI, Dendrinos K, Farraye FA, Stucchi AF, Becker JM, Odze RD. Pathologic features and clinical significance of “backwash” ileitis in ulcerative colitis. Am J Surg Pathol. 2005;29(11):1472–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Das KM, Dasgupta A, Mandal ADITYA, Geng X. Autoimmunity to cytoskeletal protein tropomyosin. A clue to the pathogenetic mechanism for ulcerative colitis. J Immunol. 1993;150(6):2487–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Pitchumoni CS, Chari S. Ulcerative colitis and autoimmune pancreatitis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2013;47(6):469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Cabral M, Batalha S, Nunes J, Jotta R, Cravo M, Oom P. PReS-FINAL-2080: overlap syndrome between primary sclerosing cholangitis and autoimmune hepatitis associated with ulcerative colitis-a case of unusual presentation in a patient with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Pediatr Rheumatol. 2013;11 Suppl 2:P92.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Chandra S, Finn S, Obah E. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura in ulcerative colitis: a case report and systematic review. J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect. 2014;4(2).Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Betterle C, Garelli S, Coco G, Burra P. A rare combination of type 3 autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS-3) or multiple autoimmune syndrome (MAS-3). Autoimmun Highlights. 2014;5(1):27–31.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Ouyang Q, Tandon R, Goh KL, Pan GZ, Fock KM, Fiocchi C, Lam SK, Xiao SD. Management consensus of inflammatory bowel disease for the Asia–Pacific region. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;21(12):1772–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Gore RM, Balthazar EJ, Ghahremani GG, Miller FH. CT features of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1996;167(1):3–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
  186. 186.
    Fujiya M, Saitoh Y, Nomura M, Maemoto A, Fujiya K, Watari J, Ashida T, Ayabe T, Obara T, Kohgo Y. Minute findings by magnifying colonoscopy are useful for the evaluation of ulcerative colitis. Gastrointest Endosc. 2002;56(4):535–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Paine ER. Colonoscopic evaluation in ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology report. 2014. gou028.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Lewis JD, Chuai S, Nessel L, Lichtenstein GR, Aberra FN, Ellenberg JH. Use of the non-invasive components of the mayo score to assess clinical response in ulcerative colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008;14(12):1660–6.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Mayo endoscopic scoring of ulcerative colitis. From: http://www.sages.co.za/images/MAYO%203.pdf. Available 11 July 2014.
  190. 190.
    Rutgeerts P, Sandborn WJ, Feagan BG, Reinisch W, Olson A, Johanns J, Suzanne T, Rachmilewitz D, Hanauer SB, Lichtenstein GR, de Villiers WJS, Present D, Sands BE, Colombel JF. Infliximab for induction and maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(23):2462–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Travis SP, Schnell D, Krzeski P, Abreu MT, Altman DG, Colombel JF, Feagan BG, Hanauer SB, Lémann M, Lichtenstein GR, Marteau PR, Reinisch W, Sands BE, Yacyshyn BR, Bernhardt CA, Mary JY, Sandborn WJ. Developing an instrument to assess the endoscopic severity of ulcerative colitis: the Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index of Severity (UCEIS). Gut. 2012;61(4):535–42.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Lapaquette P, Brest P, Hofman P, Darfeuille-Michaud A. Etiology of Crohn’s disease: many roads lead to autophagy. J Mol Med. 2012;90(9):987–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Solberg IC, Vatn MH, Høie O, Stray N, Sauar J, Jahnsen J, Moum B, Lygren I. Clinical course in Crohn’s disease: results of a Norwegian population-based ten-year follow-up study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;5(12):1430–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Goksel S. Crohn Hastalığının Patolojik Özellikleri. Cerrahpaşa Tıp Dergisi. 2009;40(3).Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Punwani S, Rodriguez-Justo M, Bainbridge A, Greenhalgh R, De Vita E, Bloom S, Cohen R, Windsor A, Obichere A, Hansmann A, Novelli M, Halligan S, Taylor SA. Mural inflammation in Crohn disease: location-matched histologic validation of MR imaging features 1. Radiology. 2009;252(3):712–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
  197. 197.
    Owen DA. Gastritis and carditis. Mod Pathol. 2003;16(4):325–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Teufel A, Weinmann A, Kahaly GJ, Centner C, Piendl A, Wörns M, Lohse AW, Galle PR, Kanzler S. Concurrent autoimmune diseases in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2010;44(3):208–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Tozzoli R, Kodermaz G, Perosa AR, Tampoia M, Zucano A, Antico A, Bizzaro N. Autoantibodies to parietal cells as predictors of atrophic body gastritis: a five-year prospective study in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Autoimmun Rev. 2010;10(2):80–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Hase K, Takahashi D, Ebisawa M, Kawano S, Itoh K, Ohno H. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase deficiency causes organ-specific autoimmune disease. PLoS One. 2008;3(8):e3033.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Kivity S, Agmon-Levin N, Blank M, Shoenfeld Y. Infections and autoimmunity–friends or foes? Trends Immunol. 2009;30(8):409–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Cho JH, Gregersen PK. Genomics and the multifactorial nature of human autoimmune disease. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(17):1612–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Mary JY, Modigliani R. Development and validation of an endoscopic index of the severity for Crohn’s disease: a prospective multicentre study. Groupe d’Etudes Therapeutiques des Affections Inflammatoires du Tube Digestif (GETAID). Gut. 1989;30(7):983–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
  205. 205.
    de Chambrun GP, Peyrin-Biroulet L, Lémann M, Colombel JF. Clinical implications of mucosal healing for the management of IBD. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;7(1):15–29.Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Langan RC, Gotsch PB, Krafczyk MA, Skillinge DD. Ulcerative colitis: diagnosis and treatment. Am Fam Physician. 2007;76(9):1323–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Jess T, Rungoe C, Peyrin–Biroulet L. Risk of colorectal cancer in patients with ulcerative colitis: a meta-analysis of population-based cohort studies. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;10(6):639–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Risques RA, Lai LA, Himmetoglu C, Ebaee A, Li L, Feng Z, Bronner MP, Al-Lahham B, Kowdley KV, Lindor KD, Rabinovitch PS, Brentnall TA. Ulcerative colitis–associated colorectal cancer arises in a field of short telomeres, senescence, and inflammation. Cancer Res. 2011;71(5):1669–79.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Hlavaty T, Huorka M, Koller T, Zita P, Kresanova E, Rychly B, Toth J. Colorectal cancer screening in patients with ulcerative and Crohn’s colitis with use of colonoscopy, chromoendoscopy and confocal endomicroscopy. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;23(8):680–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Cairns SR, Scholefield JH, Steele RJ, Dunlop MG, Thomas HJ, Evans GD, Eaden JA, Rutter MD, Atkin WP, Saunders BP, Lucassen A, Jenkins P, Fairclough PD, Woodhouse CR. Guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and surveillance in moderate and high risk groups (update from 2002). Gut. 2010;59(5):666–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Qaseem A, Denberg TD, Hopkins RH, Humphrey LL, Levine J, Sweet DE, Shekelle P. Screening for colorectal cancer: a guidance statement from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2012;156(5):378–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Mooiweer E, Fidder HH, Siersema PD, Laheij RJ, Oldenburg B. Fecal calprotectin testing can identify ineffective colorectal cancer surveillance procedures in patients with longstanding colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2014;20(6):1079–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Shussman N, Wexner SD. Colorectal polyps and polyposis syndromes. Gastroenterol Rep. 2014;2(1):1–15.Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    GROUPING, Stage. WHO histological classification of tumours of the colon and rectum. Pathology and genetics of tumours of the digestive system, 103. http://www.iarc.fr/en/publications/pdfs-online/pat-gen/bb2/BB2.pdf. Available 10 Sept 2014.
  215. 215.
    Gallageos-Orozo JF, Gurudu SR. Complex colon polypectomy. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;6(6):375.Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Winawer SJ, Zauber AG, Fletcher RH, Stillman JS, O’Brien MJ, Levin B, Smith RA, Lieberman DA, Burt RW, Levin TR, Bond JH, Brooks D, Byers T, Hyman N, Kirk L, Thorson A, Simmang C, Johnson D, Rex DK. Guidelines for colonoscopy surveillance after polypectomy: a consensus update by the US Multi‐Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer and the American Cancer Society. CA Cancer J Clin. 2006;56(3):143–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Loeve F, Boer R, Zauber AG, van Ballegooijen M, van Oortmarssen GJ, Winawer SJ, Habbema JDF. National Polyp Study data: evidence for regression of adenomas. Int J Cancer. 2004;111(4):633–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Boparai KS, Mathus-Vliegen EM, Koornstra JJ, Nagengast FM, Van Leerdam M, Van Noesel CJ, Houben M, Cats A, van Hest LP, Fockens P, Dekker E. Increased colorectal cancer risk during follow-up in patients with hyperplastic polyposis syndrome: a multicentre cohort study. Gut. 2010;59:1094e1100. doi: 10.1136/gut.2009.185884.Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Chow E, Lipton L, Lynch E, D’Souza R, Aragona C, Hodgkin L, Brown G, Winship I, Barker M, Buchanan D, Cowie S, Nasioulas S, du Sart D, Young J, Leggett B, Jass J, Macrae F. Hyperplastic polyposis syndrome: phenotypic presentations and the role of MBD4 and MYH. Gastroenterology. 2006;131(1):30–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Atkin WS, Saunders BP. Surveillance guidelines after removal of colorectal adenomatous polyps. Gut. 2002;51 Suppl 5:v6–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Young PE, Womeldorph CM, Johnson EK, Maykel JA, Brucher B, Stojadinovic A, Avital I, Nissan A, Steele SR. Early detection of colorectal cancer recurrence in patients undergoing surgery with curative intent: current status and challenges. J Cancer Educ. 2014;5(4):262.Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Glicksman AS, Fulton JP. Metachronous cancer. R I Med J. 2013;96(4):41.Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Sakamoto T, Matsuda T, Nakajima T, Saito Y. How often should we perform surveillance colonoscopy after surgery for colorectal cancer? Int J Colorectal Dis. 2013;28(6):835–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Singh A, Kuo YF, Goodwin JS. Many patients who undergo surgery for colorectal cancer receive surveillance colonoscopies earlier than recommended by guidelines. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;11(1):65–72.e1.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Atkin WS, Edwards R, Kralj-Hans I, Wooldrage K, Hart AR, Northover J, Parkin DM, Wardle J, Duffy SW, Cuzick J. Once-only flexible sigmoidoscopy screening in prevention of colorectal cancer: a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2010;375(9726):1624–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D. Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin. 2011;61(2):69–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
  228. 228.
    Pox CP, Altenhofen L, Brenner H, Theilmeier A, Stillfried DV, Schmiegel W. Efficacy of a nationwide screening colonoscopy program for colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology. 2012;142(7):1460–7.e2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Calonge N, Petitti DB, DeWitt TG, Dietrich AJ, Gregory KD, Harris R, Isham G, LeFevre ML, Leipzig RM, Loveland-Cherry C, Marion LN, Melnyk B, Moyer VA, Ockene JK, Sawaya GF, Yawn, BP. Screening for colorectal cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2008;149(9):627–37. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspscolo.htm#update. Available 3 Aug 2014.
  230. 230.
    Levin B, Lieberman DA, McFarland B, Smith RA, Brooks D, Andrews KS, Dash C, Giardiello FM, Glick S, Levin TR, Pickhardt P, Rex DK, Thorson A, Winawer SJ. Screening and surveillance for the early detection of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps, 2008: a joint guideline from the American Cancer Society, the US Multi‐Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology. CA Cancer J Clin. 2008;58(3):130–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Meyers MA. Distribution of intra-abdominal malignant seeding: dependency on dynamics of flow of ascitic fluid. Am J Roentgenol. 1973;119(1):198–206.Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    Manfredi S, Lepage C, Hatem C, Coatmeur O, Faivre J, Bouvier AM. Epidemiology and management of liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Ann Surg. 2006;244(2):254.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Church J, Lynch C, Neary P, LaGuardia L, Elayi E. A desmoid tumor-staging system separates patients with intra-abdominal, familial adenomatous polyposis-associated desmoid disease by behavior and prognosis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2008;51(6):897–901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Bertario L, Russo A, Sala P, Eboli M, Giarola M, D’amico F, Gismondi V, Varesco L, Pierotti MA, Radice P. Genotype and phenotype factors as determinants of desmoid tumors in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Int J Cancer. 2001;95(2):102–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Demirbaş S. Etiology, diagnostic procedures and treatment modalities in chronic constipation. Gulhane Med J. 2010;52(1):061–8.Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Yee J, Akerkar GA, Hung RK, Steinauer-Gebauer AM, Wall SD, McQuaid KR. Colorectal neoplasia: performance characteristics of CT colonography for detection in 300 patients 1. Radiology. 2001;219(3):685–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Punwani S, Hafeez R, Bainbridge A, Boulos P, Halligan S, Bloom S, Taylor SA. Quantitative MRI of colonic mural enhancement: segmental differences exist in endoscopically proven normal colon. Br J Radiol. 2012;85(1017):1314–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Oussalah A, Laurent V, Bruot O, Bressenot A, Bigard MA, Régent D, Peyrin-Biroulet L. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance without bowel preparation for detecting colonic inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut. 2010;59(8):1056–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Ahmed T, Haboubi N. Assessment and management of nutrition in older people and its importance to health. Clin Interv Aging. 2010;5:207.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Jirathitikal V, Metadilogkul O, Bourinbaiar AS. Increased body weight and improved quality of life in AIDS patients following V-1 Immunitor administration. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004;58(1):110–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Zauner C, Rabitsch W, Schneeweiss B, Schiefermeier M, Greinix HT, Keil F, Ratheiser K, Kalhs P. Energy and substrate metabolism in patients with chronic extensive graft-versus-host disease. Transplantation. 2001;71(4):524–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Bosaeus I, Daneryd P, Svanberg E, Lundholm K. Dietary intake and resting energy expenditure in relation to weight loss in unselected cancer patients. Int J Cancer. 2001;93(3):380–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Fearon KC, Voss AC, Hustead DS. Definition of cancer cachexia: effect of weight loss, reduced food intake, and systemic inflammation on functional status and prognosis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(6):1345–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Athreya S, Moss J, Urquhart G, Edwards R, Downie A, Poon FW. Colorectal stenting for colonic obstruction: the indications, complications, effectiveness and outcome—5-year review. Eur J Radiol. 2006;60(1):91–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Sharma AK, Sharma RK, Sharma SK, Sharma A, Soni D. Typhoid intestinal perforation: 24 Perforations in one patient. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2013;3 Suppl 1:S41.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Afshar S, Kurer MA. Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage for perforated sigmoid diverticulitis. Colorectal Dis. 2012;14(2):135–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Genstorfer J, Schäfer J, Kettelhack C, Oertli D, Rosenthal R. Surgery for ischemic colitis: outcome and risk factors for in-hospital mortality. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2014;29(4):493–503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Autenrieth DM, Baumgart DC. Toxic megacolon. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2012;18(3):584–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Singh R, Kumar N, Bhattacharya A, Vajifdar H. Preoperative predictors of mortality in adult patients with perforation peritonitis. Indian J Crit Care Med. 2011;15(3):157.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Ozturk MA, Kanbay M, Kasapoglu B, Onat AM, Guz G, Furst DE, Ben-Chetrit E. Therapeutic approach to familial Mediterranean fever: a review update. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2010;29(4 Suppl 67):S77–86.Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    Miele V, Sessa B. Role of multidetector row computed tomography in the diagnosis of acute peritonitis due to gastrointestinal perforation. In: Imaging of alimentary tract perforation. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 133–45.Google Scholar
  252. 252.
    Biondo S, Lopez Borao J, Millan M, Kreisler E, Jaurrieta E. Current status of the treatment of acute colonic diverticulitis: a systematic review. Colorectal Dis. 2012;14(1):e1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Leuva HL, Kushwaha MR. Role of laparoscopy in peritonitis. Natl J Integr Res Med. 2014;5(2):54–5.Google Scholar
  254. 254.
    McGillicuddy EA, Schuster KM, Brown E, Maxfield MW, Davis KA, Longo WE. Acute cholecystitis in the elderly: use of computed tomography and correlation with ultrasonography. Am J Surg. 2011;202(5):524–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Chow KM, Szeto CC, Kwan BCH, Pang WF, Ma T, Leung CB, Law MC, Li PKT. Randomized controlled study of icodextrin on the treatment of peritoneal dialysis patients during acute peritonitis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2014;29(7):1438–43. gfu033.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Georgiou GK, Harissis H, Mitsis M, Batsis H, Fatouros M. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18(16):1987.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Acosta S. Surgical management of peritonitis secondary to acute superior mesenteric artery occlusion. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20(29):9936.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Drożdż W, Budzyński P. Change in mechanical bowel obstruction demographic and etiological patterns during the past century: observations from one health care institution. Arch Surg. 2012;147(2):175–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Ghariani B, Houissa H, Sebai F. [Laparoscopic treatment of mechanical small bowel obstruction]. Tunis Med. 2011;89(3):274–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Wang ZL, Pan ZL, Pan J, Sun W, Xu JM, He J. [Comparison of the diagnosis and treatment of mechanical bowel obstruction due to tumor or other causes]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 2012;34(1):57–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Jiménez-Pérez J, Casellas J, García-Cano J, Vandervoort J, García-Escribano OR, Barcenilla J, Delgado AA, Goldberg P, Gonzalez-Huix F, Vázquez-Astray E, Meisner S. Colonic stenting as a bridge to surgery in malignant large-bowel obstruction: a report from two large multinational registries. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011;106(12):2174–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Soriano A, Davis MP. Malignant bowel obstruction: individualized treatment near the end of life. Cleve Clin J Med. 2011;78(3):197–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Sharma A, Thompson MS, Scrivani PV, Dykes NL, Yeager AE, Freer SR, Erb HN. Comparison of radiography and ultrasonography for diagnosing small‐intestinal mechanical obstruction in vomiting dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2011;52(3):248–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Gan SI, Beck PL. A new look at toxic megacolon: an update and review of incidence, etiology, pathogenesis, and management. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003;98(11):2363–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Dobson G, Hickey C, Trinder J. Clostridium difficile colitis causing toxic megacolon, severe sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 2003;29(6):1030.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Imbriaco M, Balthazar EJ. Toxic megacolon: role of CT in evaluation and detection of complications. Clin Imaging. 2001;25(5):349–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Swan NC, Geoghegan JG, O’Donoghue DP, Hyland JMP, Sheahan K. Fulminant colitis in inflammatory bowel disease. Dis Colon Rectum. 1998;41(12):1511–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Modigliani R, McLeod RS. Medical management of fulminant colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2002;8(2):129–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Koagulasyon mekanizmasi. From: http://www.kmtd.org.tr/pdf/5_1_24_Koagulasyon_Mekanizmasi.pdf. Available 15 Aug 2014.
  270. 270.
    Hemostaz. From: http://www.cengizcanpolat.com/hemostaz.php. Available 15 Aug 2014.
  271. 271.
    Kanama ve pihtilasma bozukluklarınındis hekimligi cerrahisindeki onemi ve yeri. From: http://dent.ege.edu.tr/yayinlarimiz/bitirme_tezleri/pdf/22.pdf. Available 15 Aug 2014.
  272. 272.
    Kanama. From: http://www.oocities.org/turkerbulut/trKanama.html. Available 15 Aug 2014.
  273. 273.
    Coughlin SR. Protease‐activated receptors in hemostasis, thrombosis and vascular biology. J Thromb Haemost. 2005;3(8):1800–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Hoffman M, Monroe 3rd D. A cell-based model of hemostasis. Thromb Haemost. 2001;85(6):958–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Cerrahi İşlem Öncesi Koagülasyon Testleri Bozuk Olan Hastada Ne Yapmalıyım? From: http://www.thd.org.tr/thdData/userfiles/file/Cerrahislem.pdf. Available 15 Aug 2014.
  276. 276.
    Schwartzberg LS. Neutropenia: etiology and pathogenesis. Clin Cornerstone. 2006;8:S5–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Kuijpers TW. Clinical symptoms and neutropenia: the balance of neutrophil development, functional activity, and cell death. Eur J Pediatr. 2002;161(1):S75–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Antibiotic prophylaxix in gastrointestinal endoscopy. From: http://www.bsg.org.uk/pdf_word_docs/prophylaxis2001.pdf. Available 23 Aug 2014.
  279. 279.
    Allison MC, Sandoe JAT, Tighe R, Simpson IA, Hall RJ, Elliott TSJ. Antibiotic prophylaxis in gastrointestinal endoscopy. Gut. 2009;58(6):869–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Andreyev HJN, Davidson SE, Gillespie C, Allum WH, Swarbrick E. Practice guidance on the management of acute and chronic gastrointestinal problems arising as a result of treatment for cancer. Gut. 2012;61:179–92. gutjnl-2011-300563.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Neutropenic enterocolitis. From: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/183791-overview. Available 23 Aug 2014.
  282. 282.
    Kilicoglu B, Kilicoglu SS, Eren VC. Gastrointestinal sistemde yara iyileşmesi. SD Ü Tıp Fak Derg. 2005;12:67–76.Google Scholar
  283. 283.
    Volkov N, Nisenblat V, Ohel G, Gonen R. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: insights on obstetric aspects. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2007;62(1):51–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Beighton P, Grahame R, Bird H. Ehlers—Danlos syndrome. London: Springer; 1983.Google Scholar
  285. 285.
    Paepe A, Malfait F. Bleeding and bruising in patients with Ehlers–Danlos syndrome and other collagen vascular disorders. Br J Haematol. 2004;127(5):491–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Malfait F, Wenstrup RJ, De Paepe A. Clinical and genetic aspects of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, classic type. Genet Med. 2010;12(10):597–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Urmil AK. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type V. Med J Armed Forces India. 2004;60(1):81–3.Google Scholar
  288. 288.
    Pepin M, Schwarze U, Superti-Furga A, Byers PH. Clinical and genetic features of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome type IV, the vascular type. N Engl J Med. 2000;342(10):673–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Pol RA, Kurvers HAJM, Verheij JBGM, Pals G, van der Wal AM, Boers J, Jörning PJG. Spontaneous Non-traumatic rupture of a Non-aneurysmatic infrarenal abdominal aorta in a 10-year old girl without histological evidence of connective tissue or autoimmune disease: a case report. EJVES Extra. 2007;13(2):9–12.Google Scholar
  290. 290.
    Vlahos NF, Triantafyllidou O, Vitoratos N, Grigoriadis C, Creatsas G. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis in Marfan syndrome. Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2013;2013(2013), Article ID 542961, 3 p. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/542961.
  291. 291.
    Pyeritz RE. The Marfan syndrome. Annu Rev Med. 2000;51(1):481–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Faivre L, Collod‐Beroud G, Adès L, Arbustini E, Child A, Callewaert BL, Loeys B, Binquet C, Gautier E, Mayer K, Arslan-Kirchner M, Grasso M, Beroud C, Hamroun D, Bonithon-Kopp C, Plauchu H, Robinson PN, De Backer J, Coucke P, Francke U, Bouchot O, Wolf JE, Stheneur C, Hanna N, Detaint D, De Paepe A, Boileau C, Jondeau G. The new Ghent criteria for Marfan syndrome: what do they change? Clin Genet. 2012;81(5):433–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Mizuguchi T, Collod-Beroud G, Akiyama T, Abifadel M, Harada N, Morisaki T, Allard D, Varret M, Claustres M, Morisaki H, Ihara M, Kinoshita A, Yoshiura K, Junien C, Kajii T, Jondeau G, Ohta T, Kishino T, Furukawa Y, Nakamura Y, Niikawa N, Boileau C, Matsumoto N. Heterozygous TGFBR2 mutations in Marfan syndrome. Nat Genet. 2004;36(8):855–60.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Dean JC. Marfan syndrome: clinical diagnosis and management. Eur J Hum Genet. 2007;15(7):724–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Sharma PV, Eglinton T, Hider P, Frizelle F. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the role of routine colonic evaluation after radiologically confirmed acute diverticulitis. Ann Surg. 2014;259(2):263–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Humes DJ, Spiller RC. Review article: the pathogenesis and management of acute colonic diverticulitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2014;39(4):359–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Bridoux V, Antor M, Schwarz L, Cahais J, Khalil H, Michot F, Tuech JJ. Elective operation after acute complicated diverticulitis: is it still mandatory? World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20(25):8166.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    McDermott FD, Collins D, Heeney A, Winter DC. Minimally invasive and surgical management strategies tailored to the severity of acute diverticulitis. Br J Surg. 2014;101(1):e90–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Sakalihasan N, Limet R, Defawe OD. Abdominal aortic aneurysm. Lancet. 2005;365(9470):1577–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Upchurch GR, Schaub TA. Abdominal aortic aneurysm. Am Fam Physician. 2006;73(7):1198–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Prisant LM, Mondy JS. Abdominal aortic aneurysm. J Clin Hypertens. 2004;6(2):85–9.Google Scholar
  302. 302.
    Veraldi GF, Minicozzi AM, Leopardi F, Ciprian V, Genco B, Pacca R. Treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with colorectal cancer: presentation of 14 cases and literature review. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2008;23(4):425–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
  304. 304.
    Gastrointestinal, Establishment Of. Establishment of gastrointestinal endoscopy areas. Gastrointest Endosc. 1999;50(6).Google Scholar
  305. 305.
    Brennan MA. Appendix A – The procedure unit. In: Drossman DA, Grimm IS, Shaheen NJ, editors. Handbook of gastroenterologic procedures. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005. p. 371.Google Scholar
  306. 306.
    Colonoscope. From: http://www.who.int/medical_devices/innovation/colonoscope.pdf. Available 30 Aug 2014.
  307. 307.
    Brooker JC, Saunders BP, Shah SG, Williams CB. A new variable stiffness colonoscope makes colonoscopy easier: a randomised controlled trial. Gut. 2000;46(6):801–5.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Delegge M, Kaplan R. Efficacy of bowel preparation with the use of a prepackaged, low fibre diet with a low sodium, magnesium citrate cathartic vs. a clear liquid diet with a standard sodium phosphate cathartic. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005;21(12):1491–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Ong C, Ong C, Han, WM. Evidence for low residue diet in the management of gastrointestinal related conditions. Proc Singapore Healthcare Volume. 2012;21(3):172.Google Scholar
  310. 310.
    Wu KL, Rayner CK, Chuah SK, Chiu KW, Lu CC, Chiu YC. Impact of low-residue diet on bowel preparation for colonoscopy. Dis Colon Rectum. 2011;54(1):107–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
  312. 312.
    Endoskopi kolonoskopi hazirlik programi. From: http://www.sjh.com.tr/tr/endoskopi/101/kolonoskopi-hazirlik-programi/. Available 1 Sept 2014.
  313. 313.
  314. 314.
    Hassan C, Bretthauer M, Kaminski MF, Polkowski M, Rembacken B, Saunders B, Benamouzig R, Holme O, Green S, Kuiper T, Marmo R, Omar M, Petruzziello L, Spada C, Zullo A, Dumonceau JM. Bowel preparation for colonoscopy: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) guideline. Endoscopy. 2013;45(2):142–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Deepak P, Sifuentes H, Sherid M, Ehrenpreis ED. Preparing for colonoscopy. In: Endoscopic procedures in colon and rectum. Croatia: Intechopen;2011. p. 1–26.Google Scholar
  316. 316.
    Bugra D. Rektum ve Anal Bölgenin Cerrahi Anatomisi. Anorektal Bolgenin Selim Hastalikları. http://www.kolorektalcerrahi.com/images/books/book_1369989106.pdf#page=19. Available 9 Sept 2014.
  317. 317.
    Kolon rektum kanserleri. From: http://www.tkrcd.org.tr/KolonRektumKanserleri/025_ayhan_kuzu.pdf. Available 2 Sept 2014.
  318. 318.
    Bugra D. Rektum ve anal bölgenin cerrahi anatomisi. Turkiye Klinikleri J General Surg Special Topics. 2010;3(3):1–7.Google Scholar
  319. 319.
    Jorge JMN, Habr‐Gama A. Anatomy and embryology of the colon, rectum, and anus. In: The ASCRS textbook of colon and rectal surgery. New York: Springer; 2007. p. 1–22.Google Scholar
  320. 320.
    Kolon rectum anus. From: iys.inonu.edu.tr/webpanel/dosyalar/463/file/Sindirim-3.ppt. Available 2 Sept 2014.
  321. 321.
  322. 322.
  323. 323.
    Jayasekeran V, Holt B, Bourke M. Normal adult colonic anatomy in colonoscopy. Video J Encyclopedia GI Endosc. 2013;1(2):390–2.Google Scholar
  324. 324.
    Rex DK, Bond JH, Winawer S, Levin TR, Burt RW, Johnson DA, Kirk LM, Litlin S, Lieberman DA, Waye JD, Church J, Marshall JB, Riddell RH. Quality in the technical performance of colonoscopy and the continuous quality improvement process for colonoscopy: recommendations of the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97(6):1296–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    Probst A. 5 inserting the endoscope and advancing It in the colon. In: Atlas of colonoscopy: examination techniques and diagnosis, vol. 25. Stuttgart: Thieme; 2006.Google Scholar
  326. 326.
    Williams C, Teague RH. Colonoscopy. Gut. 1973;14(12):990–1003.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. 327.
    Waye JD, Yessayan SA, Lewis BS, Fabry TL. The technique of abdominal pressure in total colonoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc. 1991;37(2):147–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. 328.
    Leung CW, Kaltenbach T, Soetikno R, Wu KK, Leung FW, Friedland S. Water immersion versus standard colonoscopy insertion technique: randomized trial shows promise for minimal sedation. Endoscopy. 2010;42(07):557–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. 329.
    Teshima CW, Aktas H, Haringsma J, Kuipers EJ, Mensink PB. Single-balloon–assisted colonoscopy in patients with previously failed colonoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2010;71(7):1319–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    May A, Ell C. Push-and-pull enteroscopy using a single-balloon technique for difficult colonoscopy. Endoscopy. 2006;38(04):395–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. 331.
    Castro G, Azrak MF, Seeff LC, Royalty J. Outpatient colonoscopy complications in the CDC's Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program. Cancer. 2013;119(S15);2849–54.Google Scholar
  332. 332.
    Taylor FC, Frankl HD, Riemer KD. Late presentation of splenic trauma after routine colonoscopy. Am J Gastroenterol. 1989;84(4):442–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    Schurr MO, Hartmann C, Ho CN, Fleisch C, Kirschniak A. An over-the-scope clip (OTSC) system for closure of iatrogenic colon perforations: results of an experimental survival study in pigs. Endoscopy. 2008;40(7):584–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. 334.
    Magdeburg R, Collet P, Post S, Kaehler G. Endoclipping of iatrogenic colonic perforation to avoid surgery. Surg Endosc. 2008;22(6):1500–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Cho SB, Lee WS, Joo YE, Kim HR, Park SW, Park CH, Kim HS, Choi SK, Rew JS. Therapeutic options for iatrogenic colon perforation: feasibility of endoscopic clip closure and predictors of the need for early surgery. Surg Endosc. 2012;26(2):473–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Nelson RL, Abcarian H, Prasad ML. Iatrogenic perforation of the colon and rectum. Dis Colon Rectum. 1982;25(4):305–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    Navsaria PH, Graham R, Nicol A. A new approach to extraperitoneal rectal injuries: laparoscopy and diverting loop sigmoid colostomy. J Trauma. 2001;51(3):532–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    Cleary RK, Pomerantz RA, Lampman RM. Colon and rectal injuries. Dis Colon Rectum. 2006;49(8):1203–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    Stein DF, Myaing M, Guillaume C. Splenic rupture after colonoscopy treated by splenic artery embolization. Gastrointest Endosc. 2002;55(7):946–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. 340.
    Viamonte M, Wulkan M, Irani H. Splenic trauma as a complication of colonoscopy. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 1992;2(2):154–7.Google Scholar
  341. 341.
    Lalor PF, Mann BD. Splenic rupture after colonoscopy. JSLS. 2007;11(1):151–6.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. 342.
    Clancy AA, Tiruta C, Ashman D, Ball CG, Kirkpatrick AW. The song remains the same although the instruments are changing: complications following selective non-operative management of blunt spleen trauma: a retrospective review of patients at a level I trauma centre from 1996 to 2007. J Trauma Manag Outcomes. 2012;6(1):1–10.Google Scholar
  343. 343.
    Requarth JA, D’Agostino Jr RB, Miller PR. Nonoperative management of adult blunt splenic injury with and without splenic artery embolotherapy: a meta-analysis. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2011;71(4):898–903.Google Scholar
  344. 344.
    Tay YK, Tay JY, Naqash N, Cashin P. Infective endocarditis and infected aneurysm of splenic artery post colonoscopy. Ann Gastroenterol. 2013;26(2):170.Google Scholar
  345. 345.
    Chun YJ, Yoon NR, Park JM, Lim CH, Cho YK, Lee IS, Kim SW, Choi MG, Choi KY, Chung IS. Prospective assessment of risk of bacteremia following colorectal stent placement. Dig Dis Sci. 2012;57(4):1045–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. 346.
    Sharara AI, Abou Hamdan T, Malli A, El‐Halabi MM, Hashash JG, Ghaith OA, Kanj SS. Association of Streptococcus bovis endocarditis and advanced colorectal neoplasia: a case–control study. J Dig Dis. 2013;14(7):382–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. 347.
    Amer S, Hassan S, Mittal C. Case report polymicrobial multiple intraabdominal infections: a rare complication of colonoscopy in a cirrhotic patient. J Med Allied Sci. 2014;4(1):43–4.Google Scholar
  348. 348.
    Bonenfant F, Rousseau É, Farand P. Streptococcus anginosus pyogenic liver abscess following a screening colonoscopy. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol. 2013;24(2):e45.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. 349.
    Kambhampati G, Asmar A, Pakkivenkata U, Ather IS, Ejaz AA. Anaerobic clavicular osteomyelitis following colonoscopy in a hemodialysis patient. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2011;15(5):780–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. 350.
    Sherid M, Samo S, Sulaiman S. Complications of colonoscopy. 2013. http://www.intechopen.com/books/colonoscopy-and-colorectal-cancer-screening-future-directions/complications-of-colonoscopy. Available 12 Sept 2014.
  351. 351.
    Bretthauer M, Lynge AB, Thiis-Evensen E, Hoff G, Fausa O, Aabakken L. CO2 insufflation for colonoscopy. Endoscopy. 2005;37(8):706–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. 352.
    Dominitz JA, Eisen GM, Baron TH, Goldstein JL, Hirota WK, Jacobson BC, Johanson JF, Leighton JA, Mallery JS, Raddawi JM, Vargo JJ, Waring JP, Fanelli RD, Wheeler-Harbough J, Faigel DO, Standards of Practice Committee. Complications of colonoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2003;57(4):441–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  353. 353.
    Pickhardt PJ, Nugent PA, Mysliwiec PA, Choi JR, Schindler WR. Location of adenomas missed by optical colonoscopy. Ann Intern Med. 2004;141(5):352–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. 354.
    Menees SB, Kim HM, Elliott EE, Mickevicius JL, Graustein BB, et al. The impact of fair colonoscopy preparation on colonoscopy use and adenoma miss rates in patients undergoing outpatient colonoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2013;78(3):510–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. 355.
    Pohl H, Robertson DJ. Colorectal cancers detected after colonoscopy frequently result from missed lesions. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;8(10):858–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. 356.
    Pohl H, Srivastava A, Bensen SP, Anderson P, Rothstein RI, Gordon SR, Levy LC, Toor A, Mackenzie TA, Rosch T, Robertson DJ. Incomplete polyp resection during colonoscopy—results of the Complete Adenoma Resection (CARE) Study. Gastroenterology. 2013;144(1):74–80.e1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. 357.
    Lieberman DA, Rex DK, Winawer SJ, Giardiello FM, Johnson DA, Levin TR. Guidelines for colonoscopy surveillance after screening and polypectomy: a consensus update by the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer. Gastroenterology. 2012;143(3):844–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. 358.
    Lin OS, Biehl T, Jiranek GC, Kozarek RA. Explosion from argon cautery during proctoileoscopy of a patient with a colectomy. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;10(10):1176–8.e2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. 359.
    Hagel AF, Boxberger F, Dauth W, Kessler HP, Neurath MF, Raithel M. Colonoscopy‐associated perforation: a 7‐year survey of in‐hospital frequency, treatment and outcome in a German university hospital. Colorectal Dis. 2012;14(9):1121–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. 360.
    Khan JS, Moran BJ. Iatrogenic perforation at colonic imaging. Colorectal Dis. 2011;13(5):481–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. 361.
    Camúñez F, Echenagusia A, Simó G, Turégano F, Vázquez J, Barreiro-Meiro I. Malignant colorectal obstruction treated by means of self-expanding metallic stents: effectiveness before surgery and in palliation 1. Radiology. 2000;216(2):492–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. 362.
    Tanaka A, Sadahiro S, Yasuda M, Shimizu S, Maeda Y, Suzuki T, Tokunaga N, Ogoshi K. Endoscopic balloon dilation for obstructive colorectal cancer: a basic study on morphologic and pathologic features associated with perforation. Gastrointest Endosc. 2010;71(4):799–805.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. 363.
    Suzuki N, Saunders BP, Thomas-Gibson S, Akle C, Marshall M, Halligan S. Colorectal stenting for malignant and benign disease: outcomes in colorectal stenting. Dis Colon Rectum. 2004;47(7):1201–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. 364.
    Sugimoto S, Mizukami T, Ito T, Tsunoda Y, Imamura S, Tamura T, Nagakubo S, Morohoshi Y, Koike Y, Fujita Y, Komatsu H. Endoscopic detorsion for sigmoid volvulus using unsedated water-immersion colonoscopy. Endoscopy. 2013;45(S 02):E263–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. 365.
    Lou Z, Yu ED, Zhang W, Meng RG, Hao LQ, Fu CG. Appropriate treatment of acute sigmoid volvulus in the emergency setting. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19(30):4979.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Omer Engin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mebrure Evnur Uyar
    • 2
  • Oguzhan Sunamak
    • 3
  • Fuat Ipekci
    • 4
  1. 1.Surgery DepartmentBuca Seyfi Demirsoy State HospitalIzmirTurkey
  2. 2.Emergency DepartmentBuca Seyfi Demirsoy State HospitalIzmirTurkey
  3. 3.Surgery DepartmentHaydarpasa Numune Training and Research HospitalIstanbulTurkey
  4. 4.Surgery DepartmentTepecik Training and Research HospitalIzmirTurkey

Personalised recommendations