F-ETX: An Enhancement of ETX Metric for Wireless Mobile Networks
The accuracy and the reactivity of link quality estimators are key concepts in Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANETs) and especially in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs), since routing process uses link quality related metrics based on neighbour information for making routing decisions. The Expected Transmission Count (ETX) is the most salient metric that assesses the link quality for wireless ad hoc and mesh networks. Its estimation varies according to the link changes like disruption and bidirectional to unidirectional switching. Such changes occur more often in highly mobile networks like VANETs. In order to be efficient routing protocols have to deal with these events. It has been observed that current implementation of ETX leads to a limited accuracy and cannot be efficient in VANETs. In this paper is presented an algorithm which makes the ETX metric more adapted for VANETs. Our contribution significantly improves the reactivity and the accuracy of the metric. In addition, our metric is not limited to the link quality estimation but also brings a link stability information. This results a new metric called Fast-ETX (F-ETX). This metric has been tested under realistic physical layer and mobility patterns to evaluate its reactivity, accuracy and stability properties.
KeywordsVANET ETX local link quality routing metric dynamic window
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.The ns-3 network simulator, http://www.nsnam.org/
- 3.Casteigts, A.: The jbotsim library. CoRR abs/1001.1435 (2013), http://arxiv.org/abs/1001.1435
- 4.Corson, S., Macker, J.: Mobile ad hoc networking (manet): Routing protocol performance issues and evaluation considerations. RFC 2501 (January 1999), https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2501.txt
- 5.De Couto, D.S.J., Aguayo, D., Bicket, J., Morris, R.: A high-throughput path metric for multi-hop wireless routing. In: Proceedings of the 9th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, pp. 134–146. ACM, New York (2003), http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/938985.939000 Google Scholar
- 6.Javaid, N., Javaid, A., Khan, I.A., Djouani, K.: Performance study of etx based wireless routing metrics. In: 2nd International Conference on Computer, Control and Communication, IC4 2009, pp. 1–7 (February 2009)Google Scholar
- 7.Liu, Y., Mi, Z.-C., Zhang, J.-F., Qu, X.: Improvement of etx metric base on olsr. In: 2010 International Conference on Wireless Communications and Signal Processing (WCSP), pp. 1–4 (October 2010)Google Scholar
- 8.Quartulli, A., Cigno, R.: Client announcement and fast roaming in a layer-2 mesh network. Tech. rep., University of Trento (October 2011), http://eprints.biblio.unitn.it/2269/1/report.pdf
- 9.Clausen, T., Jacquet, E.P., Optimized, E.: link state routing protocol (olsr). RFC 3626 (October 2003), https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3626.txt