Advertisement

Conclusions

  • Ivan BičíkEmail author
  • Lucie Kupková
  • Leoš Jeleček
  • Jan Kabrda
  • Přemysl Štych
  • Zbyněk Janoušek
  • Jana Winklerová
Chapter
Part of the Springer Geography book series (SPRINGERGEOGR)

Abstract

This chapter presents synthesis of the land use research covering the last 175 years and discusses the main findings. During this period, modernization trends and new forms of spatial organization have much altered the existing functions, including land use patterns. Major land use changes in different periods of time are presented. The first phase covered by the research (1845–1896) brought the peak of extensive farming; land use structure was rather similar regardless of different natural, social, and economic conditions. During the second period (1896–1948), though it included crucial political and economic events (World War I and II, independence), no major changes of land use patterns were recorded. On the contrary, the Communist period (1948–1990) brought fundamental changes. The transfer of ethnic Germans, transition to a centrally planned economy, and technological modernization were among the crucial driving forces of land use changes. Regarding the most recent period (from 1990 onwards), a number of different concepts have been enforced (restitution of property seized by the Communists, privatization, etc.) and these have profound effects on land use patterns. Regional differences in land use classes as well as major landscape processes in Czechia 1845–2010 are shown in maps and tables. In the very end, an outlook for future landscape changes in Czechia is given. These are likely to be affected especially by external factors that include EU Agricultural Policy, global food prices, and climatic changes. Though fertile regions will probably be intensively farmed also in the future, land use trends in uplands and highlands remain uncertain.

Keywords

Land use patterns Driving forces Regional differences External influence Future prospects 

References

  1. Balej M, Anděl J, Raška P (2011) Geografický pohled na české cukrovarnictví v evropském kontextu. Listy Cukrovarnické a řepařské 127(7–8):253–255Google Scholar
  2. Beranová M, Kubačák A (2010) Dějiny zemědělství v Čechách a na Moravě. (History of Agriculture in Bohemia and Moravia). Libri, PragueGoogle Scholar
  3. Bičík I, Götz A (1998) Czech Republic. In: Turnock B (ed) Privatisation in rural eastern Europe. The process of restitution and restructuring. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, pp 93–119Google Scholar
  4. Bičík I, Jančák V (2005) Transformační procesy v českém zemědělství po roce 1990. Charles University in Prague, PragueGoogle Scholar
  5. Bičík I, Jeleček L (2005) Political events factoring into land-use changes in Czechia in the 20th century. In: Milanova EV et al (eds) Understanding land-use and land-cover change in global and regional context. Science Publishers, Enfield, pp 165–186Google Scholar
  6. Bičík I, Jeleček L (2009) Land use and landscape changes in Czechia during the period of transition 1990–2007. Geografie 114(4):263–281Google Scholar
  7. Bičík I, Kupková L (2012) The utilisation of relative development index in the assessment of land use in Czechia 1845–2000. In: Bičík I, Himiyama Y, Feranec J et al (eds) Land use/cover changes in selected regions in the world, vol VII. IGU Commission on LUCC, Charles University in Prague, Prague, pp 71–79Google Scholar
  8. Bičík I, Jeleček L, Štěpánek V (2001) Land-use changes and their social driving forces in Czechia in the 19th and 20th centuries. Land Use Policy 18(1):65–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bičík I et al (2010) Vývoj využití ploch v Česku. ČGS-Edice Geographica, PragueGoogle Scholar
  10. Doucha T (2001) Czech pre-accession agricultural policy and utilisation of agricultural land. Agric Econ 47(7):281–284Google Scholar
  11. Gabrovec M, Kladnik D (1997) Some new aspects of land use in Slovenia. Geografski sbornik – Acta Geographica 37:7–64Google Scholar
  12. Gabrovec M, Petek F, Kladnik D (2001) Land use changes in the 20th century in Slovenia. In: Himiyama Y et al (eds) Land use/cover changes in selected regions in the world, vol I. IGU Commission on LUCC, Asahikawa, pp 41–52Google Scholar
  13. Hampl M (2000) Reality, society and geographical/environmental organization: searching for an integrated order. Charles University in Prague, PragueGoogle Scholar
  14. Hampl M, Müller J (2011) Společenská transformace a regionální diferenciace Česka. Příklad vývoje rozmístění pracovních sil a obyvatel. Geografie 116(3):211–230Google Scholar
  15. Jeleček L (1985) Zemědělství a půdní fond v Čechách ve 2. polovině 19. století. Academia, PragueGoogle Scholar
  16. Jeleček L (1991) Některé ekologické souvislosti vývoje zemědělské krajiny a zemědělství v Českých zemích (Changing Nature of Agriculture and Agricultural Landscapes in Czech Republic: Selected Environmental Impacts). Český časopis historický 89(3):375–394Google Scholar
  17. Jeleček L, Bičík I, Štych P et al (2012) Case study area Kobylí: change of land use patterns 1827‒2001. In: Bičík I, Himiyama Y, Feranec J et al (eds) Land use/cover changes in selected regions in the world, vol VII. IGU Commission on LUCC, Charles University in Prague, Prague, pp 43–48Google Scholar
  18. Krausmann F (2001) Land use and industrial modernization: an empirical analysis of human influence on the functioning of ecosystems in Austria 1830–1995. Land Use Policy 18(1):17–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Krausmann F, Haberl H, Schulz NB et al (2003) Land use change and socio-economic metabolism in Austria—Part I: driving forces of land-use change 1950–1995. Land Use Policy 20(1):1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kupková L, Bičík I (2007) Land use development in the Czech Republic and possibilities of generalization and modeling. In: Dostál P, Langhammer J (eds) Modeling natural environment and society. P3K, Prague, pp 179–204Google Scholar
  21. Lipský Z (1998) Historical development of the Czech rural landscape used to its present ecological stabilization. Ekológia/Ecology 15(1):105–109Google Scholar
  22. Lipský Z (2001) Present land use changes in the Czech cultural landscape: driving forces and environmental consequences. Moravian Geogr Rep 9(2):2–14Google Scholar
  23. LUCC Czechia Database: database of long-term land use changes in Czechia (1845–2010)Google Scholar
  24. Mather AS (2002) The reversal of land-use trends: the beginning of the reforestation of Europe. In: Bičík I et al (eds) Land use/land cover changes in the period of globalization. Proceedings of the IGU-LUCC international conference, Prague 2001. Charles University in Prague, Prague, pp 23–30Google Scholar
  25. Mather AS (2006) Driving Forces. In: Geist H (ed) Our earth’s changing land: an encyclopedia of land-use and land-cover change, vol I. Greenwood Press, Westport, pp 179–185Google Scholar
  26. Mather AS, Needle CL (1998) The forest transition: a theoretical basis. Area 30(2):117–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Musil J (1977) Urbanizace v socialistických zemích. Svoboda, PragueGoogle Scholar
  28. Purš J (1973) Průmyslová revoluce. Vývoj pojmu a koncepce. Academia, PragueGoogle Scholar
  29. Purš J (1980) Complex revolution of the modern age and industrial revolution. Historica 19(1980):135–170Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ivan Bičík
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lucie Kupková
    • 2
  • Leoš Jeleček
    • 1
  • Jan Kabrda
    • 1
  • Přemysl Štych
    • 1
  • Zbyněk Janoušek
    • 1
  • Jana Winklerová
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Science, Department of Social Geography and Regional DevelopmentCharles University in PraguePrague 2Czech Republic
  2. 2.Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Geoinformatics and CartographyCharles University in PraguePrague 2Czech Republic

Personalised recommendations