Introduction and Geological Setting of the Iberian Pyrite Belt

  • C. Inverno
  • A. Díez-Montes
  • C. Rosa
  • J. García-Crespo
  • J. Matos
  • J. L. García-Lobón
  • J. Carvalho
  • F. Bellido
  • J. M. Castello-Branco
  • C. Ayala
  • M. J. Batista
  • F. Rubio
  • I. Granado
  • F. Tornos
  • J. T. Oliveira
  • C. Rey
  • Vítor Araújo
  • T. Sánchez-García
  • Z. Pereira
  • P. Represas
  • A. R. Solá
  • P. Sousa
Chapter

Abstract

The 250 × 20–70 km Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) is a Variscan metallogenic province in SW Portugal and Spain hosting the largest concentration of massive sulphide deposits worldwide. The lowermost stratigraphic unit is the early Givetian to late Famennian-Strunian (base unknown) Phyllite-Quartzite Group (PQG), with shales, quartz-sandstones, quartzwacke siltstones, minor conglomerate and limestones at the top. The PQG is overlain by the Volcanic Sedimentary Complex (VSC), of late Famennian to mid-late Visean age, with a lower part of mafic volcanic rocks, rhyolites, dacites and dark shales, hosting VHMS deposits on top (many times capped by a jasper/chert layer), and an upper part, with dark, purple and other shales and volcanogenic/volcaniclastic rocks, carrying Mn oxide deposits. The VSC is covered by the thousands of meters thick Baixo Alentejo Flysch Group of late Visean to Moscovian age. The VSC comprises a bimodal submarine volcanic succession, with VHMS deposits spatially associated to dacites and rhyolites corresponding to effusive/explosive lava-cryptodome-pumice cone volcanoes. The lava/domes consist of coherent lithofacies surrounded by clast-rotated hyaloclastite breccia and minor autobreccia, with massive VHMS ore at the top of the felsic effusive units and stockworks in the autoclastic and pyroclastic breccias. The eastern IPB rocks are intruded by the voluminous Sierra Norte Batholith (tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite, TTG series). Felsic volcanic rocks (dacite to high-silica rhyolite) predominating over basalts and dolerites, belong to the calc-alkaline series and plot mostly in the within-plate field in tectonic discriminative diagrams. Several periods of volcanism, from 384 to 359 Ma are recognized. Dacites and rhyolites exhibit Nd and Sr enrichment, typical of a crustal signature, and their overall geochemistry suggests generation by fractionation/partial melting of amphibolites at low pressure. Trace elemental modelling of the basic rocks, involving tholeiitic lavas and alkaline basaltic lavas and dolerites, points to mixing between E- and N-MORB and assimilation of crustal material. Variscan NW-SE/W-E-trending and SW- or S-verging folds (with NE- or N-dipping planar cleavage) and thrusts, occur in west-central and eastern IPB, respectively. In late to post-Variscan time strike-slip oblique faults formed, either N-S to NNW-SSE or NE-SW to ENE-WSW, dextral or sinistral (both extensional), respectively. The first set hosts late Variscan Cu-Pb-Ba veins and Mesozoic(?) dolerite dykes. IPB contains over 90 VHMS deposits, estimated before erosion at >1700 Million tonnes (Mt), with 14.6 Mt Cu, 34.9 Mt Zn, 13.0 Mt Pb, 46,100 t Ag, 880 t Au and many other metals, particularly Sn. Eight of these are giant (≥100 Mt) VHMS deposits, namely Rio Tinto, Tharsis, Aznalcóllar-Los Frailes, Masa Valverde, Sotiel-Migollas and La Zarza (Spain) and Neves Corvo and Aljustrel (Portugal). The VHMS deposits are of the felsic-siliclastic type and mostly of the Zn–Pb–Cu and Zn–Cu–Pb metal content types. The deposits range in thickness from 1 m to tens of meters (plus increase from tectonic stacking) and up to a few kilometers in extension, and many are underlain by large stockwork zones. Their age is either Strunian (palynological age) in the southern IPB or mostly Tournaisian in the northern IPB. The major massive ore minerals are pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena (and cassiterite at Neves Corvo), also present with dominant quartz-chlorite-sericite-carbonate in the stockwork ore. Sericite and chlorite were also formed from additional alteration in the hanging wall rocks. Metal zonation in most VHMS deposits consists of a Cu-rich stockwork and base of the massive ore, with Zn–Pb massive ore above and extending laterally. S-, O-, H- and C-isotope data indicate that ore-forming fluids contain predominant or exclusive modified seawater. A magmatic fluid contribution to the dominant seawater has been proposed for some deposits. The deposits are exhalative or formed by shallow subsurface replacement of either muds/shales or coherent felsic volcanic rocks.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Inverno
    • 1
  • A. Díez-Montes
    • 2
  • C. Rosa
    • 3
  • J. García-Crespo
    • 2
  • J. Matos
    • 4
  • J. L. García-Lobón
    • 2
  • J. Carvalho
    • 1
  • F. Bellido
    • 2
  • J. M. Castello-Branco
    • 5
  • C. Ayala
    • 2
    • 6
  • M. J. Batista
    • 1
  • F. Rubio
    • 2
  • I. Granado
    • 1
  • F. Tornos
    • 7
  • J. T. Oliveira
    • 1
  • C. Rey
    • 2
  • Vítor Araújo
    • 8
  • T. Sánchez-García
    • 2
  • Z. Pereira
    • 9
  • P. Represas
    • 1
  • A. R. Solá
    • 1
  • P. Sousa
    • 4
  1. 1.Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia (LNEG)AlfragidePortugal
  2. 2.Instituto Geológico y Minero de España (IGME)MadridSpain
  3. 3.Empresa de Desenvolvimento Mineiro SA (EDM)LisboaPortugal
  4. 4.LNEGBejaPortugal
  5. 5.Geology and Geotechnics Consultores Lda.PortoPortugal
  6. 6.Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera (CSIC)BarcelonaSpain
  7. 7.CSIC-INTATorrejón de ArdozSpain
  8. 8.VizelaPortugal
  9. 9.LNEGS. Mamede InfestaPortugal

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