# Conversations as Learning Tools in Mathematics: What Do Pupils Actually Learn?

Chapter

## Abstract

The theme of this chapter is to discuss challenges associated with the use of classroom conversations as learning tools in mathematics in lower secondary school. Conversations as learning tools – be it whole class discussions or conversations in pairs and groups – have received a lot of positive attention within mathematics education over recent decades. Researchers around the world have argued that students generally should be given more opportunities to actively participate in academically related mathematical conversations and discussions (Cobb et al. 1997; Cobb et al. 2000; Sfard 2000, 2001; Sfard and Kieran 2001; Van Oers 2001; Jaworski 2005; Kazemi & Franke, 2004; Lampert and Graziani 2009).

## Keywords

Mathematics Education Class Discussion Mathematical Understanding Mathematics Lesson Mathematical Proficiency
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