Underwater Mixed Environments

  • Uwe Freiherr von Lukas
  • John Quarles
  • Panagiotis Kaklis
  • Tim Dolereit
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8844)


In this chapter we give a systematic overview over Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) in underwater settings and suggest several future applications. Based on a novel classification scheme we illustrate the broad range of available and future implementation options. Whilst we find a variety of previous work on creating and using virtual underwater worlds, quite few examples of real underwater settings exist up to now. Thus, we concentrate on this new category, sketch attractive application areas that go beyond entertainment, and derive requirements for Underwater Mixed Environments (UWME). Combined with a short summary on relevant aspects of underwater optics, we formulate potential topics of future research to overcome current limitations of UWME.


Virtual Reality Augmented Reality Maritime technology Rehabilitation Ship Maintenance Marine research 



The authors wish to thank all the participants in the session on Unconventional Mixed Environments of the Dagstuhl seminar 2013 on Virtual Realities [11] for their valuable contributions to the topic. Furthermore, the authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their suggestions and comments.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Uwe Freiherr von Lukas
    • 1
  • John Quarles
    • 2
  • Panagiotis Kaklis
    • 3
  • Tim Dolereit
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Maritime GraphicsFraunhofer IGDRostockGermany
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of Texas at San AntonioSan AntonioUSA
  3. 3.Department Naval Architecture, Ocean and Marine EngineeringUniversity of StrathclydeGlasgowUK
  4. 4.Institute for Computer ScienceUniversity of RostockRostockGermany

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