Advertisement

Common Ground, Uncommon Vision: The Importance of Cooperation for Small-Scale Fisheries Governance

  • Silvia Salas
  • Julia Fraga
  • Jorge Euan
  • Ratana Chuenpagdee
Part of the MARE Publication Series book series (MARE, volume 13)

Abstract

Like in many countries around the world, concerns about resource degradation due to high fishing intensity and use of illegal fishing gears have led to the creation of several protected areas in Mexico. Also as in other cases, these conservation efforts have not been very successful, especially in areas where boundaries are unclear; resource uses overlap, and enforcement weak. Under these circumstances, conflicts between users are likely to escalate, making the fisheries system and the protected areas ungovernable. As posited by interactive governance theory, how stakeholders interact depends partly on the inherent characteristics of the social system, including images that they have of each other, and of the governing system. Stakeholder interactions are also reflections of their willingness to cooperate with each other, which in turn affects the overall resource governability. We illustrate the importance of stakeholder cooperation for governability using a case study of two neighboring small-scale fishing communities, San Felipe and Dzilam de Bravo, on the Yucatan coast of Mexico. While sharing fishing grounds and two nested protected areas, fishers from these two communities had different images about what the protected areas were for, who benefited from them, and how they should be governed. The communities also differed in livelihood options, the level of internal organization, and in the mode of governance. Based on our findings obtained through participatory research, we discuss how to foster cooperation between small-scale fishers and promote co-governance in order to enhance resource governability in the area.

Keywords

Cooperation Participatory research Protected areas Resource governability Small-scale fisheries Mexico 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the people of San Felipe and Dzilam de Bravo for their kind collaboration and warm welcome while we undertook this research. The project was funded by the International Development and Research Centre of Canada, in collaboration with CARICOM, Laval University and the International Ocean Institute—Canada. We thank Yvan Breton and Brian Davy for their support during the project. The research team members, namely, Miguel Cabrera, Hector Rodríguez, Karin Alvarez, Josefina Morales, Anna-Cristina Gavaldon, Laura Vidal, Martha Uc, Nidia Echeverría and Felipe Bobadilla were instrumental to this research. Juan Carlos Mijangos helped with the organization of workshops. Comments on an earlier version of the chapter by Yvan Breton and Maiken Bjørkan have been helpful.

References

  1. Aguilar, W. J., Castro- Castillo, N., & Couoh Cab, J. (2012). El manejo del área marina y costera protegida Actam Chuleb y los beneficios económicos que genera a los usuarios del municipio de San Felipe, Yucatán, México. Estudios Sociales, XX(40), 127–153.Google Scholar
  2. Aguilar–Perera, A., Scharer, M., & Valdés-Pizzini, M. (2006). Marine protected areas in Puerto Rico: Historical and current perspectives. Ocean and Coastal Management, 49, 961–975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrews, A., & Gallareta, N. T. (2003). Proyecto Isla Cerritos y Cupul, 1984–1988. Retrieved from http://ww.ncf.edu/andrews/ICAP.html
  4. Arceo–Carranza, D., Vega–Cendejas, M. E., Montero–Muñoz, J. L., & Hernández de Santillana, M. (2010). Influencia del hábitat en las asociaciones nictimerales de peces en una laguna costera tropical. Revista mexicana de biodiversidad, 81(3), 823–837.Google Scholar
  5. Ayuntamiento Municipal de San Felipe. (1999). Documento de declaración de Reserva Municipal Actam Chuleb. San Felipe, Yucatán, México, 11 de enero.Google Scholar
  6. Berkes, F. (2008). Evolution of co-management: Role of knowledge generation, bridging organizations and social learning. Journal of Environmental Management, 90(5), 692–1702.Google Scholar
  7. Bjørkan, M. (2009). Putting MPAs to work: A Mexican case study on community empowerment. MAST, 8(1), 11–31.Google Scholar
  8. Charles, A. T., & Wilson, L. (2009). Human dimensions of marine protected areas. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 66, 6–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Christie, P. (2004). Marine protected areas as biological successes and social failures in Southeast Asia (pp. 155–164). American Fisheries Society Symposium.Google Scholar
  10. Chuenpagdee, R., & Jentoft, S. (2007). Step zero for fisheries co-management: What precedes implementation. Marine Policy, 31, 657–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chuenpagdee, R., & Jentoft, S. (2013). Assessing governability: What’s next? In M. Bavinck, R. Chuenpagdee, S. Jentoft, & J. Kooiman (Eds.), Governability of fisheries and aquaculture: Theory and applications (pp. 335–350). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  12. Chuenpagdee, R., Fraga, J., & Euan, J. I. (2002). Community’s perspectives toward marine reserve: A case study of San Felipe, Yucatán, Mexico. Coastal Management, 30(2), 183–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chuenpagdee, R., Fraga, J., & Euan, J. I. (2004). Progressing toward co-management through participatory research. Society and Natural Resources, 17, 147–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chuenpagdee, R., Pascual-Fernández, J. J., Szeliánszky, E., Luis Alegret, J., Fraga, J., & Jentoft, S. (2013). Marine protected areas: Re-thinking their inception. Marine Policy, 39, 234–240. doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2012.10.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cinner, J. E., & Pollnac, R. B. (2004). Poverty, perceptions and planning: Why socioeconomics matter in the management of Mexican reefs. Ocean and Coastal Management, 47, 479–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cudney-Bueno, R., Bourillón, L., Sáenz-Arroyo, A., Torre-Cosío, J., Turk-Boyer, P., & Shaw, W. W. (2009). Governance and effects of Marine reserves in the Gulf of California. Ocean and Coastal Management, 52(3–4), 207–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Davy, B., & Breton, Y. (2006). Coastal management in the wider Caribbean: Resilience, adaptation and community diversity. In Y. Breton, D. Brown, B. Davy, M. Haughton, & L. Ovares (Eds.), Coastal resource management in the wider Caribbean: Resilience, adaptation, and community diversity (pp. 1–16). Ottawa: Ian Randall Publishers- IDRC.Google Scholar
  18. Diario Oficial del Gobierno del Estado de Yucatán. (2005). Acuerdo número 71. Poder Ejecutivo. Mérida Yucatán, jueves 29 de diciembre.Google Scholar
  19. Fraga, E. J., Salas, S., & Chuenpagdee, R. (2006). Manejo comunitario de una área natural protegida en Yucatán, México (Fase II). CINVESTAV-Mérida- CIID. 214 p.Google Scholar
  20. Fraga, J., Salas, S., & Mexicano-Cíntora, G. (2008). La pesca en Yucatán: de la abundancia a la escasez, a la fragilidad de las estructuras institucionales. In J. Fraga, G. J. Villalobos, S. Doyon, & S. A. García (Eds.), Descentralización y manejo ambiental. Gobernanza costera en México (pp. 133–148). Plaza y Valdés, Mexico.Google Scholar
  21. García-Frapollia, E., Ramos-Fernández, G., Galicia, E., & Serranod, A. (2008). The complex reality of biodiversity conservation through Natural Protected Area policy: Three cases from the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Land Use Policy, 26(3), 715–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. García-Frapollli, E., Ramos-Fernández, G., Galicia, E., & Serrano, A. (2009). The complex reality of biodiversity conservation through natural protected area policy: Three cases from the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Land Use Policy, 26(3), 715–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gatewood, J. (1984). Cooperation, competition, and synergy: Information-sharing groups among Southeast Alaskan salmon seiners. American Ethnological Society, 11(2), 350–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gray, S., Shwom, R., & Jordan, R. (2012). Understanding factors that influence stakeholder trust of natural resource science and institutions. Environmental Management, 49, 663–674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Guénette, S., Chuenpagdee, R., & Jones, R. (2000). Marine protected areas with emphasis on local communities and indigenous peoples: A review. Fisheries Centre Research Report, 8(1), 56.Google Scholar
  26. Gutiérrez, N. L., Hilborn, R., & Defeo, O. (2011). Leadership, social capital and incentives promote successful fisheries. Nature, 470, 386–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Guttman, J. M. (1996). Rational actors, tit-for-tat, and the evolution of cooperation. Journal Ecological Behaviour Organization, 29, 27–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hannesson, R. (2001). The economics of marine protected areas. In R. Sumaila, & J. Alder (Eds.), Economics of protected areas (pp. 85–92). Fisheries Centre Research Report, 9(8).Google Scholar
  29. Hilborn, R. (2007). Managing fisheries is managing people: What has been learned? Issue Fish and Fisheries, 8(4), 285–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hilborn, R., Stokesb, K., Maguire, J. J., Smithd, T., Botsford, L. W., Mangel, M., Orensanz, J. L., Parma, A., Rice, J., Bell, J., Cochrane, K., Garcia, S., Hall, S. J., Kirkwood, G. P., Stefansson, S. K., Stefansson, G., & Walters, C. (2004). When can marine reserves improve fisheries management? Ocean and Coastal Management, 47, 197–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. INEGI. (2014). Mexico en cifras. Retrieved from http://www3.inegi.org.mx/sistemas/mexicocifras/default.aspx?src=487&e=31
  32. Jentoft, S., & Chuenpagdee, R. (2009). Fisheries and coastal governance as a wicked problem. Marine Policy, 33, 553–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jentoft, S. C., van Son, T., & Bjørkan, M. (2007). Marine protected areas: A governance system analysis. Human Ecology, 35, 611–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jentoft, S., Chuenpagdee, R., Bundy, A., & Mahon, R. (2010). Pyramids and roses: Alternative images for the governance of fisheries systems. Marine Policy, 34, 1315–1321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jentoft, S., Chuenpagdee, R., & Pascual-Fernandez, J. J. (2011). What are MPAs for: On goal formation and displacement. Ocean and Coastal Management, 54, 75–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jentoft, S., Pascual-Fernandez, J., De la Cruz Modino, R., Gonzalez-Ramallal, M., & Chuenpagdee, R. (2012). What stakeholders think about marine protected areas: Case studies from Spain. Human Ecology, 40, 185–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jesus, A., & Eúan-Avila J. I. (2008). Monitoring submerged aquatic vegetation changes with multispectral imagery and landscape ecology (Vol. 2, pp. 339–350). Eighth international symposium on GIS and computer mapping for coastal zone management. CoastGIS 07, Santander España, October 8–10.Google Scholar
  38. Kooiman, J., & Jentoft, S. (2009). Meta-governance: Values, norms and principles, and the making of hard choices. Public Administration, 87, 818–836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kooiman, J., Bavinck, M., Jentoft, S., & Pullin, R. (2005). Fish for life: Interactive governance for fisheries. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. McConney, P., & Baldeo, R. (2007). Lessons in co-management from beach seine and lobster fisheries in Grenada. Fisheries Research, 87, 77–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mora, C., & Sale, F. P. (2011). Ongoing global biodiversity loss and the need to move beyond protected areas: A review of the technical and practical shortcomings of protected areas on land and sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 434, 251–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ovando, D., Deacon, R. T., Lester, S. E., Costello, C., VanLeuvan, T., McIlwain, K., Strauss, C. K., Arbuckle, M., Fujita, R., Gelcich, S., & Uchida, H. (2013). Conservation incentives and collective choices in cooperative fisheries. Marine Policy, 37, 132–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pajaro, M., Mulrennan, M. E., Alderc, J., & Vincent, A. (2010). Developing MPA effectiveness indicators: Comparison within and across stakeholder groups and communities. Coastal Management, 38(2), 122–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pedroza, C., & Salas, S. (2011). Responses of the fishing sector to transitional constraints: From reactive to proactive change, Yucatan fisheries in Mexico. Marine Policy, 35(1), 39–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pollnac, R. B., & Pomeroy, R. (2005). Factors influencing sustainability of integrated coastal management projects in the Philippines and Indonesia. Ocean and Coastal Management, 48, 233–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Salas, S., Bjørkan, M., Bobadilla, F., & Cabrera, M. A. (2011). Addressing vulnerability: Coping strategies of fishing communities in Yucatan, Mexico. In S. Jentoft & A. Eide (Eds.), Poverty mosaics: Realities and prospects in small-scale fisheries (pp. 195–220). London: Springer, Netherlands.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sale, P., Cowen, R. K., Danilowicz, B. S., Jones, J. P., Kritzer, J. P., Lindeman, K. C., Planes, S., Polunin, N., Russ, G., Sadovy, Y., & Steneck, R. S. (2005). Critical science gaps impede use of no-take fishery reserves. TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution, 20(2), 74–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Secretaria de Ecologia. (2006). Programa de manejo Reserva Estatal de Dzilam.1ª edición. Mexico. Retrieved from http://www.seduma.yucatan.gob.mx/areas-naturales/documentos/Pm_Dzilam_Docto.pdf
  49. Skaperdas, S., & Syropoulos, C. (1996). Can the shadow of the future harm cooperation? Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 29, 355–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Song, A. M., Chuenpagdee, R., & Jentoft, S. (2013). Values, images, and principles: What they represent and how they may improve fisheries governance. Marine Policy, 40, 167–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sumaila, U. R. (1998). Protected marine reserves as hedge against uncertainty: An economist’s perspective. In T. J. Pitcher, D. Pauly, & P. Hart (Eds.), Reinventing fisheries management (pp. 303–309). Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Vidal, L., & Capurro-Filograsso, L. (2008). Quantitative analysis of natural resource regulations leading to coastal ecosystems sustainability: Mexico as a case study. Journal of Coastal Research, 24(4), 876–889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. White, A. T., Salamanca, A., & Courtney, C. A. (2002). Experience with marine protected area planning and management in the Philippines. Coastal Management, 30, 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Silvia Salas
    • 1
  • Julia Fraga
    • 1
  • Jorge Euan
    • 1
  • Ratana Chuenpagdee
    • 2
  1. 1.CINVESTAVMeridaMexico
  2. 2.Department of GeographyMemorial UniversitySt. John’sCanada

Personalised recommendations