Advertisement

A Principle-Based Analysis of Multilevel Policy Areas on Inshore Fisheries in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

  • Andrew M. Song
  • Ratana Chuenpagdee
Part of the MARE Publication Series book series (MARE, volume 13)

Abstract

Small-scale fisheries in Newfoundland and Labrador have been shaped by multiple institutions and policies occurring at various scales. Some of these institutions and policies present opportunities, while others pose threats to the sustainability and the viability of this inshore fishery, a sector already facing a grim decline. This chapter analyzes contemporary policy areas at three different scales (provincial, national and transatlantic) and assesses their likely effects on the future of the small-scale fisheries and the rural communities who depend on it. Utilizing the governability perspective focusing on ‘meta-level’ governance, the governing principles embedded in these policy areas are given particular attention in the analysis. The discussion generates a set of questions that need to be considered in moving forward with the governance of the small-scale inshore sector in Newfoundland and Labrador. We argue that these inquiries are also crucial for charting the overall direction of the fishing industry in the province as a whole.

Keywords

Governance principle Fisheries policy CETA Direct fish sales Fleet self-rationalization Inshore fisheries Newfoundland and Labrador 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank two anonymous reviewers for their insightful feedback on an earlier draft of this chapter. If any errors remain, they are the sole responsibility of the authors.

References

  1. Bavington, D. (2011). Managed annihilation: An unnatural history of the Newfoundland cod collapse. Vancouver: UBC Press.Google Scholar
  2. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). (2014). The Fisheries Broadcast, Monday October 6, 2014. Retrieved from http://podcast.cbc.ca/mp3/podcasts/nlfisheries_20141006_90774.mp3
  3. Chuenpagdee, R., & Jentoft, S. (2013). Assessing governability – What’s next. In M. Bavinck, R. Chuenpagdee, S. Jentoft, & J. Kooiman (Eds.), Governability of fisheries and aquaculture: Theory and applications (pp. 335–349). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chuenpagdee, R., & Song, A. M. (2012). Institutional thinking in fisheries governance: Broadening perspectives. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 4, 309–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Clarke, M. (2003). The professionalization of inshore fishers. In R. Byron (Ed.), Retrenchment and regeneration in rural Newfoundland (pp. 134–157). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  6. Clift, T., & Cooper, T. (2014). The three R’s. Rationalization, retrenchment, reorientation: The Newfoundland and Labrador Fishery after the MOU. Newfoundland Quarterly, 107(2), 37–40.Google Scholar
  7. Davis, R. (2014). A cod forsaken place? Fishing in an altered state in Newfoundland. Anthropological Quarterly, 87(3), 727–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Davis, R., & Korneski, K. (2012). In a pinch: Snow crab and the politics of crisis in Newfoundland. Labour/Le Travail, 69(1), 119–145.Google Scholar
  9. Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture (DFA). (2014). Seafood industry year in review 2013. St. John’s: DFA.Google Scholar
  10. Eric Dunne Consulting Initiatives. (2010). Report of the review of the regulations and policy for direct fish sales in Newfoundland and Labrador. St. John’s: Eric Dunne Consulting Initiatives. Retrieved from http://www.fishaq.gov.nl.ca/publications/Direct_Fish_Sales_NL_2010%20.pdf
  11. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO). (1996). Commercial fisheries licensing policy for eastern Canada – 1996. Retrieved from http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/fm-gp/policies-politiques/licences-permis/index-eng.htm
  12. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO). (2007). Policy for preserving the independence of the inshore fleet in Canada’s Atlantic fisheries. Retrieved from http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/fm-gp/initiatives/piifcaf-pifpcca/piifcaf-policy-politique-pifpcca-eng.htm
  13. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO). (2014). Commercial fisheries. Retrieved from http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/stats/commercial/licences-permis/licences-permis-atl-eng.htm
  14. Foley, P., Mather, C., & Neis, B. (2013). Fisheries allocation policies and regional development: Successes from the Newfoundland and Labrador shrimp fishery. St. John’s: The Harris Centre, Memorial University. Retrieved from http://www.mun.ca/harriscentre/reports/arf/2011/11-12-ARF-Final-Mather.pdf
  15. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). (2014). Guidelines site voluntary guidelines for securing sustainable small-scale fisheries in the context of food security and poverty eradication. Advance copy as endorsed by the 31st session of the FAO committee on fisheries (Rome, 9–13/06/2014).Google Scholar
  16. Government of Canada. (2014, September 26). Consolidated CETA text. Retrieved from http://www.international.gc.ca/trade-agreements-accords-commerciaux/agr-acc/ceta-aecg/text-texte/toc-tdm.aspx?lang=eng
  17. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. (2007a, April 12). Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador fishing industry renewal changes to DFO vessel replacement policy. Retrieved from http://www.releases.gov.nl.ca/releases/2007/fishaq/0412bkfed2.htm
  18. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. (2007b, April 12). Backgrounder. Newfoundland and Labrador fishing industry renewal strategy. Element: Implementation of fish auctions. http://www.releases.gov.nl.ca/releases/2007/fishaq/0412bk6.htm
  19. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. (2007c, April 12). Renewing the Newfoundland and Labrador fishing industry. St. John’s: Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. http://www.releases.gov.nl.ca/releases/2007/fishaq/0412n03.htm
  20. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. (2007d, April 12). Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador fishing industry renewal: Fleet self-rationalization – Enterprise combining. Retrieved from http://www.releases.gov.nl.ca/releases/2007/fishaq/0412bkfed1.htm
  21. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. (2007e, April 12). Backgrounder. Newfoundland and Labrador fishing industry renewal: The process. Retrieved from http://www.releases.gov.nl.ca/releases/2007/fishaq/0412bk1.htm
  22. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. (2013, October 29). Fishing industry enters new era of opportunity with $400 million fund. Retrieved from http://http://www.releases.gov.nl.ca/releases/2013/exec/1029n03.html
  23. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador and Government of Canada. (2006). Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador fishing industry renewal: A discussion paper. Retrieved from http://www.fishaq.gov.nl.ca/industry_renewal/fs114_5_2006e.pdf
  24. Hamilton, L. C., & Bulter, M. J. (2001). Outport adaptations: Social indicators through Newfoundland’s cod crisis. Human Ecology Review, 8(2), 1–11.Google Scholar
  25. Harris, M. (1998). Lament for an ocean: The collapse of the Atlantic cod fishery. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart.Google Scholar
  26. Khan, A. S., & Chuenpagdee, R. (2013). An interactive governance and fish chain approach to fisheries rebuilding: A case study of the northern Gulf cod in eastern Canada. AMBIO, 43, 600–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kooiman, J., & Jentoft, S. (2009). Meta-governance: Values, norms and principles, and the making of hard choices. Public Administration, 87(4), 818–836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kooiman, J., Bavinck, M., Jentoft, S., & Pullin, R. S. V. (Eds.). (2005). Fish for life: Interactive governance for fisheries. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Lilly, G. R., Parsons, D. G., & Kulka, D. W. (2000). Was the increase in shrimp biomass on the northeast Newfoundland shelf a consequence of a release in predation pressure from cod? Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science, 27, 45–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mather, C. (2013). From cod to shellfish and back again? The new resource geography and Newfoundland’s fish economy. Applied Geography, 45, 402–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. May, D. (2014). People – Demographics and productivity in fishing industry. Retrieved from http://www.mun.ca/care/CCFI_Workshop_Presentation.pptx
  32. Milich, L. (1999). Resource management versus sustainable livelihoods: The collapse of the Newfoundland cod fishery. Society and Natural Resources, 12, 625–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Murphy, I., & Neis, B. (2011). Navigating the legislative requirements for fisheries-tourism initiatives in Newfoundland and Labrador. St. John’s: Community University Research for Recovery Alliance (CURRA). Retrieved from http://www.curra.ca/documents/TCR_Fisheries_Tourism_Regulations_Report_Feb_14_Final_to_TCR_revised.pdf
  34. Neis, B., & Ommer, R. (2014). Moving forward: Building economically, socially, and ecologically resilient fisheries and coastal communities. St. John’s: Community University Research for Recovery Alliance (CURRA). Retrieved from http://www.curra.ca/documents/Revised_CURRA%20Policy%20Paper%20April%2016%202014%20to%20the%20printer%20%281%29.pdf
  35. Palmer, C. T., & Sinclair, P. R. (1997). When the fish are gone: Ecological disaster and fishers in northwest Newfoundland. Halifax: Fernwood Publishing.Google Scholar
  36. Parliament of Canada. (2007). Bill C-45: An Act respecting the sustainable development of Canada’s seacoast and inland fisheries. Retrieved from http://www.parl.gc.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c45&Parl=39&Ses=1
  37. Pisces Consulting Limited. (2014). Sea urchin fishery review. Paradise: Pisces Consulting Limited. Retrieved from http://www.fishaq.gov.nl.ca/publications/Sea_Urchin_Report.pdf
  38. Policy Brief 1. (2012). Rationalization of the fishing industry: The case of Change Islands, NL. Retrieved from http://gracilis.carleton.ca/tgeog/downloads/Using%20Local%20Knowledge,%20PB%201%20%28June%202012%29.pdf
  39. Report of the Independent Chair: MOU Steering Committee. (2011). Newfoundland and Labrador fishing industry rationalization and restructuring. Retrieved from http://www.fishaq.gov.nl.ca/publications/mou.pdf
  40. Roy, N. (1997, September 12–13). The Newfoundland fishery: A descriptive analysis. Prepared for a symposium on the efficiency of North Atlantic Fisheries. Reykjavík, Iceland.Google Scholar
  41. Shrank, W. E. (2005). The Newfoundland fishery: Ten years after the moratorium. Marine Policy, 29, 407–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sinclair, P. R. (1985). From traps to draggers: Domestic commodity production northwest Newfoundland: 1850–1982. St. John’s: ISER Books.Google Scholar
  43. Sinclair, S. (2013). Globalization, trade treaties and the future of the Atlantic Canadian fisheries. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.Google Scholar
  44. Smith, D. A., Vodden, K., Woodrow, M., Khan, A., & Furst, B. (2014). The last generation? Perspectives of inshore fish harvesters from Change Islands, Newfoundland. The Canadian Geographer, 58(1), 95–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Song, A. M., Chuenpagdee, R., & Jentoft, S. (2013). Values, images, and principles: What they represent and how they may improve fisheries governance. Marine Policy, 40, 167–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. The Navigator Magazine. (2012). Bill Barry – Analyst and prophet? Processing and magnate talks politics, business and the fishery of the future, 15(7), pp. 12–14.Google Scholar
  47. The Navigator Magazine. (2014). An argument for inter-provincial free trade and free enterprise, 17(9), pp. 12–13.Google Scholar
  48. The Telegram. (2009, March 30). Nothing rational about fisheries rationalization. Retrieved from http://www.thetelegram.com/Letters-to-the-editor/2009-03-30/article-1458787/Nothing-rational-about-fisheries-rationalization/1
  49. The Telegram. (2013, October 19). CETA a big opportunity for fishery: McCurdy. Retrieved from http://www.thetelegram.com/Business/2013-10-19/article-3434084/CETA-a-big-opportunity-for-fishery%3A-McCurdy/1
  50. The Western Star. (2011, March 4). FFAW president says fleet rationalization necessary. Retrieved from http://www.thewesternstar.com/Business/2011-03-04/article-2299471/FFAW-president-says-fleet-rationalization-necessary/1
  51. Walsh, D. (2011). What restructuring? Whose rationalization? Newfoundland and Labrador’s memorandum of understanding on its fishing industry. In R. Chuenpagdee (Ed.), World-small-scale fisheries: Contemporary visions (pp. 81–97). Delft: Eburon.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyMemorial UniversitySt. John’sCanada

Personalised recommendations