Trigger Point Injections for the Treatment of Pain in the Rehabilitation Patient
Myofascial trigger point is defined as “a hyperirritable spot in skeletal muscle that is associated with a hypersensitive palpable nodule in a taut band. The spot is tender when pressed and can give rise to characteristic referred pain, motor dysfunction, and autonomic phenomena” (Simons et al., Williams and Wilkins, 1999). Dysfunction at the neuromuscular junction has been hypothesized to be the pathophysiologic cause of trigger points. The use of trigger point injections (TPI), which are relatively safe, has been shown to normalize muscle function and to decrease pain.
KeywordsMyofascial trigger point Trigger point injection (TPI) Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) Manual manipulation
- 1.MacPartland J. Travell trigger points-molecular and osteopathic perspectives. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2004;104:244–9.Google Scholar
- 2.Kupfer M, Overton E. Treatment of trigger points in myofascial pain syndrome. In: Freedman M, Morrison W, Harwood M, editors. Minimally invasive musculoskeletal pain medicine. New York, NY: Informa Healthcare; 2007. p. 67–98.Google Scholar
- 5.Weiss L, Silver J, Lennard T, Weiss J. Easy injections. Philadelphia, PA: Butterworth-Heinemann Elsevier; 2007.Google Scholar
- 6.Emad MR, Roshanzamir S, Ghasempoor MZ, Sedaghat SMP. Effectiveness of stretching after trigger point injections. J Musculoskelet Res 2011;14(2):1–7.Google Scholar
- 9.Simons DG, Travell JG, Simons LS. Travell and Simons’ myofacial pain and dysfunction: the trigger point manual. Upper half of body, vol 1. 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins; 1999.Google Scholar