Advertisement

Trigger Point Injections for the Treatment of Pain in the Rehabilitation Patient

  • Vishal KancherlaEmail author
  • Amir Ahmadian
Chapter

Abstract

Myofascial trigger point is defined as “a hyperirritable spot in skeletal muscle that is associated with a hypersensitive palpable nodule in a taut band. The spot is tender when pressed and can give rise to characteristic referred pain, motor dysfunction, and autonomic phenomena” (Simons et al., Williams and Wilkins, 1999). Dysfunction at the neuromuscular junction has been hypothesized to be the pathophysiologic cause of trigger points. The use of trigger point injections (TPI), which are relatively safe, has been shown to normalize muscle function and to decrease pain.

Keywords

Myofascial trigger point Trigger point injection (TPI) Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) Manual manipulation 

References

  1. 1.
    MacPartland J. Travell trigger points-molecular and osteopathic perspectives. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2004;104:244–9.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kupfer M, Overton E. Treatment of trigger points in myofascial pain syndrome. In: Freedman M, Morrison W, Harwood M, editors. Minimally invasive musculoskeletal pain medicine. New York, NY: Informa Healthcare; 2007. p. 67–98.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Scott NA, Guo B, Barton PM, Gerwin RD. Trigger point injections for chronic non-malignant musculoskeletal pain: a systematic review. Pain Med. 2009;10(1):54–69.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hubbard DR, Berkoff GM. Myofascial Trigger point how spontaneous needle EMG activity. Spine. 1993;18:1803–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Weiss L, Silver J, Lennard T, Weiss J. Easy injections. Philadelphia, PA: Butterworth-Heinemann Elsevier; 2007.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Emad MR, Roshanzamir S, Ghasempoor MZ, Sedaghat SMP. Effectiveness of stretching after trigger point injections. J Musculoskelet Res 2011;14(2):1–7.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chim D, Cheng PH. Ultrasound-guided trigger point injections. Tech Reg Anesth Pain Manage. 2009;13(3):179–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Botwin KP, Patel BC. Electromyographically guided trigger point injections in the cervicothoracic musculature of obese patients: a new and unreported technique. Pain Physician. 2007;10(6):753–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Simons DG, Travell JG, Simons LS. Travell and Simons’ myofacial pain and dysfunction: the trigger point manual. Upper half of body, vol 1. 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins; 1999.Google Scholar

Recommended Reading

  1. Braddom’s physical medicine & rehabilitation. 5th ed. Cifu.Google Scholar
  2. Myofascial pain and dysfunction: the trigger point manual, vols 1 and 2. 2nd ed. Travell and Simons.Google Scholar
  3. Travell and Simons’ trigger point flip charts. 1st ed. Travell and SimonsGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Austin Diagnostic ClinicAustinUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pain Management and RehabilitationUT Southwestern Medical CenterTempleUSA

Personalised recommendations