Navarro M., Caetano M., Bernardes G., de Castro L.N., Corchado J.M. (2015) Automatic Generation of Chord Progressions with an Artificial Immune System. In: Johnson C., Carballal A., Correia J. (eds) Evolutionary and Biologically Inspired Music, Sound, Art and Design. EvoMUSART 2015. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 9027. Springer, Cham
Chord progressions are widely used in music. The automatic generation of chord progressions can be challenging because it depends on many factors, such as the musical context, personal preference, and aesthetic choices. In this work, we propose a penalty function that encodes musical rules to automatically generate chord progressions. Then we use an artificial immune system (AIS) to minimize the penalty function when proposing candidates for the next chord in a sequence. The AIS is capable of finding multiple optima in parallel, resulting in several different chords as appropriate candidates. We performed a listening test to evaluate the chords subjectively and validate the penalty function. We found that chords with a low penalty value were considered better candidates than chords with higher penalty values.
Artificial immune systems Chord progressions Harmony Consonance