• Nicole LarrierEmail author
Part of the Pediatric Oncology book series (PEDIATRICO)


This chapter addresses the long-term effects of the treatment of childhood cancer on the genitourinary (GU) tract, primarily focusing on the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, prostate, vagina, and uterus. The effects on ovaries and testes are reviewed in Chaps.  13 and  14. The most common pediatric cancers that occur in the GU tract include Wilms’ tumor, neuroblastoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma. The median age of children affected with these tumors ranges from 3 years (Wilms’ tumor, neuroblastoma) to 6 years (rhabdomyosarcoma). Growth and development of the GU tract in the following years may be compromised by the cancer treatment, including surgery, radiation therapy (RT), or chemotherapy; see Table 15.1. Recent changes in cancer therapy, including bone marrow transplantation, intraoperative radiation therapy, and high-dose rate brachytherapy, pose new risks that have not been clearly defined. Furthermore, GU organs may be incidentally damaged by therapies used to treat tumors in non-GU organs. For example, many of the chemotherapeutic agents used to treat both GU and non-GU tumors are potentially toxic to the kidney and/or bladder. In addition, radiation fields designed to treat the liver or pelvic bones usually include portions of the kidney or bladder.


Glomerular Filtration Rate Childhood Cancer Transitional Cell Carcinoma Urinary Diversion Hemorrhagic Cystitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The author wishes to acknowledge L. Marks, B. Raney, R. Heyn, and R. Cassaday.


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© Springer International Publishing 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radiation OncologyDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA

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