Symptoms: Menopause, Infertility, and Sexual Health

  • Debra L. BartonEmail author
  • Patricia A. Ganz
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 862)


By 2022, the number of survivors is expected to grow to nearly 18 million. Therefore, addressing acute and chronic negative sequelae of a cancer diagnosis and its treatments becomes a health imperative. For women with a history of breast cancer, one of the common goals of treatment and prevention of recurrence is to reduce circulating concentrations of estradiol, especially in women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Hormone deprivation after a diagnosis of breast cancer impacts physiological targets other than in the breast tissue and can result in unwanted side effects, all of which can negatively impact quality of life and function and cause distress. Symptoms that are most strongly linked by evidence to hormone changes after cancer diagnosis and treatment include hot flashes, night sweats, sleep changes, fatigue, mood changes, and diminishing sexual function, including vaginal atrophy (decreased arousal, dryness and dyspareunia), infertility, decreased desire and negative self-image. Weight gain and resulting body image changes are often concomitants of the abrupt onset of treatment-induced menopause.

The purpose of this chapter is to briefly review what is known about the advent of premature menopause in women treated for breast cancer, menopausal symptoms that are exacerbated by endocrine treatments for breast cancer, and the associated concerns of hot flashes and related menopausal symptoms, sexual health and fertility issues. We will discuss limitations in the current research and propose strategies that address current limitations in order to move the science forward.


Menopause Hot flashes Infertility Sexual health Breast neoplasms 


  1. Andersen BL, Carpenter KM, Yang HC, Shapiro CL (2007) Sexual well-being among partnered women with breast cancer recurrence. J Clin Oncol 25(21):3151–3157Google Scholar
  2. Appt SE, Ethun KF (2010) Reproductive aging and risk for chronic disease: Insights from studies of nonhuman primates. Maturitas 67(1):7–14Google Scholar
  3. Ayers B, Smith M, Hellier J, Mann E, Hunter MS (2012) Effectiveness of group and self-help cognitive behavior therapy in reducing problematic menopausal hot flushes and night sweats (MENOS 2): a randomized trial. Menopause 19(7):749–759Google Scholar
  4. Azim HA Jr, Santoro L, Pavlidis N, Gelber S, Kroman N, Azim H, Peccatori FA (2011) Safety of pregnancy following breast cancer diagnosis: a meta-analysis of 14 studies. Eur J Cancer 47(1):74–83Google Scholar
  5. Azim HA Jr, Kroman N, Paesmans M, Gelber S, Rotmensz N, Ameye L, De Mattos-Arruda L, Pistilli B, Pinto A, Jensen MB, Cordoba O, de Azambuja E, Goldhirsch A, Piccart MJ, Peccatori FA (2013) Prognostic impact of pregnancy after breast cancer according to estrogen receptor status: a multicenter retrospective study. J Clin Oncol 31(1):73–79Google Scholar
  6. Balabanovic J, Ayers B, Hunter MS (2012) Women’s experiences of group cognitive behaviour therapy for hot flushes and night sweats following breast cancer treatment: an interpretative phenomenological analysis. Maturitas 72(3):236–242Google Scholar
  7. Bardia A, Novotny P, Sloan J, Barton D, Loprinzi C (2009) Efficacy of nonestrogenic hot flash therapies among women stratified by breast cancer history and tamoxifen use: a pooled analysis. Menopause 16(3):477–483Google Scholar
  8. Barton D, Loprinzi CL (2004) Making sense of the evidence regarding nonhormonal treatments for hot flashes. Clin J Oncol Nurs 8(1):39–42Google Scholar
  9. Barton DLC, Atherton P, Sloan J, Dalton R, Balcueva E, Carpenter P (2007a) The significance of serum testosterone concentrations from female cancer survivors. Oncol Nurs Forum 34(1):170Google Scholar
  10. Barton DL, Wender DB, Sloan JA, Dalton RJ, Balcueva EP, Atherton PJ, Bernath AM Jr, DeKrey WL, Larson T, Bearden JD 3rd, Carpenter PC, Loprinzi CL (2007b) Randomized controlled trial to evaluate transdermal testosterone in female cancer survivors with decreased libido; North Central Cancer Treatment Group protocol N02C3. J Natl Cancer Inst 99(9):672–679Google Scholar
  11. Barton DTA, Atherton P, Collins M, Sloan J (2009) The menopausal experience of premenopausal women receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum 36(3):21–22Google Scholar
  12. Barton DL, Thompson SL, Senn-Reeves JN, Satele DV, Frost M (2012) Effects of chemotherapy on the ovary: what you didn’t know. Cancer Res 72(24 Suppl 3):2-11-01Google Scholar
  13. Barton D, Fee-Schroeder K, Linquist B, Keith T, Wolf S, Abboud L, Elkins G (2013) Pilot study of a biobehavioral treatment for hot flashes. Ann Behav Med 45(S33):Abstract A-130Google Scholar
  14. Basson R (2010) Sexual function of women with chronic illness and cancer. Womens Health (Lond Engl) 6(3):407–429Google Scholar
  15. Baynosa J, Westphal LM, Madrigrano A, Wapnir I (2009) Timing of breast cancer treatments with oocyte retrieval and embryo cryopreservation. J Am Coll Surg 209(5):603–607Google Scholar
  16. Bertero C, Chamberlain Wilmoth M (2007) Breast cancer diagnosis and its treatment affecting the self: a meta-synthesis. Cancer Nurs 30(3):194–202, quiz 203–204Google Scholar
  17. Biglia N, Moggio G, Peasno E, Sgandurra P, Ponzone R, Nappi RE, Sismondi P (2010) Effects of surgical and adjuvant therapies for breast cancer on sexuality, cognitive functions, and body weight. J Sex Med 7(5):1891–1900Google Scholar
  18. Braunstein GD, Sundwall DA, Katz J, Shifren JL, Buster JE, Simon JA, Bachman G, Aguirre OA, Lucas JD, Rodenberg C, Buch A, Watts NB (2005) Safety and efficacy of a testosterone patch for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in surgically menopausal women: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 165(14):1582–1589Google Scholar
  19. Brotto LA, Yule M, Breckon E (2010) Psychological interventions for the sexual sequelae of cancer: a review of the literature. J Cancer Surviv 4(4):346–360Google Scholar
  20. Buijs C, de Vries EG, Mourits MJ, Willemse PH (2008) The influence of endocrine treatments for breast cancer on health-related quality of life. Cancer Treat Rev 34(7):640–655Google Scholar
  21. Burwell SR, Case LD Kaelin C, Avis NE (2006) Sexual problems in younger women after breast cancer surgery. J Clin Oncol 24(18):2815–2821Google Scholar
  22. Busby D, Christensen C, Crane R, Larson J (1995) A revision of the dyadic adjustment scale for use with distressed and nondistressed couples: construct hierarchy and multidimensional scales. J Marital Fam Ther 21(3):289–303Google Scholar
  23. Buster JE, Kingsberg SA, Aguirre O, Brown C, Breaux JG, Buch A, Rodenberg CA, Wekselman K, Casson P. (2005) Testosterone patch for low sexual desire in surgically menopausal women: a randomized trial. Obstet Gynecol 105(5 Pt 1):944–952Google Scholar
  24. Chudakov B, Ben Zion IZ, Belmaker RH (2007) Transdermal testosterone gel prn application for hypoactive sexual desire disorder in premenopausal women: a controlled pilot study of the effects on the Arizona sexual experiences scale for females and sexual function questionnaire. J Sex Med 4(1):204–208Google Scholar
  25. Cohen S, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R (1983) A global measure of perceived stress. J Health Soc Behav 24(4):385–396Google Scholar
  26. Cohen LS, Soares CN, Otto MW, Sweeney BH, Liberman RF, Harlow BL (2002) Prevalence and predictors of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in older premenopausal women. The Harvard study of moods and cycles. J Affect Disord 70(2):125–132Google Scholar
  27. Curran S, Andrykowsky M, Studts J (1995) Short form of the profile of mood states (POMS-SF): psychometric information. Psychol Assess 7(1):80–83Google Scholar
  28. Davis SR, van der Mooren MJ, van Lunsen RH, Lopes P, Ribot C, Rees M, Moufarege A, Rodenberg C, Buch A, Purdie DW (2006) Efficacy and safety of a testosterone patch for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in surgically menopausal women: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Menopause 13(3):387–396Google Scholar
  29. Davis S, Papalia MA, Norman RJ, O’Neill S, Redelman M, Williamson M, Stuckey BG, Wlodarczyk J, Gard’ner K, Humberstone A (2008a) Safety and efficacy of a testosterone metered-dose transdermal spray for treating decreased sexual satisfaction in premenopausal women: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 148(8):569–577Google Scholar
  30. Davis SR, Moreau M, Kroll R, Bouchard C, Panay N, Gass M, Braunstein GD, Hirschberg AL, Rodenberg C, Pack S, Koch H, Moufarege A, Studd J, Aphrodite Study Team (2008b) Testosterone for low libido in postmenopausal women not taking estrogen. N Engl J Med 359(19):2005–2017Google Scholar
  31. deMoor JS, Mariotto AB, Parry C, Alfano CM, Padgett L, Kent EE, Forsythe L, Scoppa S, Hachey M, Rowland JH (2013) Cancer survivors in the United States: prevalence across the survivorship trajectory and implications for care. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 22(4):561–570Google Scholar
  32. Dodd M, Janson S, Facione N, Faucett J, Froelicher ES, Humphreys J, Lee K, Miaskowski C, Puntillo K, Rankin S, Taylor D (2001) Advancing the science of symptom management. J Adv Nurs 33(5):668–676Google Scholar
  33. Dodd MJ, Cho MH, Cooper B, Miaskowski C, Lee KA, Bank K (2005) Advancing our knowledge of symptom clusters. J Support Oncol 3(6 Suppl 4):30–31Google Scholar
  34. Duffy CM, Allen SM, Clark MA (2005) Discussions regarding reproductive health for young women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 23(4):766–773Google Scholar
  35. Duijts SF, van Beurden M, Oldenburg HS, Hunter MS, Kieffer JM, Stuiver MM, Gerritsma MA, Menke-Pluymers MB, Plaisier PW, Rijna H, Lopes Cardozo AM, Timmers G, van der Meij S, van der Veen H, Bijker N, de Widt-Levert LM , Geenen MM, Heuff G, van Dulken EJ, Boven E, Aaronson NK (2012) Efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy and physical exercise in alleviating treatment-induced menopausal symptoms in patients with breast cancer: results of a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial. J Clin Oncol 30(33):4124–4133Google Scholar
  36. Elkins GR, Fisher WL, Johnson AK, Carpenter JS, Keith TZ (2013) Clinical hypnosis in the treatment of postmenopausal hot flashes: a randomized controlled trial. Menopause 20(3):291–298Google Scholar
  37. Fobair P, Spiegel D (2009) Concerns about sexuality after breast cancer. Cancer J 15(1):19–26Google Scholar
  38. Freedman RR (2001) Physiology of hot flashes. Am J Hum Biol 13(4):453–464Google Scholar
  39. Freedman RR, Roehrs TA (2007) Sleep disturbance in menopause. Menopause 14(5):826–829Google Scholar
  40. Freedman RR, Kruger ML, Wasson SL (2011) Heart rate variability in menopausal hot flashes during sleep. Menopause 18(8):897–900Google Scholar
  41. Freeman EW, Sammel MD, Lin H, Gracia CR, Kapoor S (2008) Symptoms in the menopausal transition: hormone and behavioral correlates. Obstet Gynecol 111(1):127–136Google Scholar
  42. Frierson G, Thiel D, Andersen B (2006) Body change stress for women with breast cancer: the breast-impact of treatment scale. Ann Behav Med 32(1):77–81Google Scholar
  43. Ganz PA, Rowland JH, Desmond K, Meyerowitz BE, Wyatt GE (1998) Life after breast cancer: understanding women’s health-related quality of life and sexual functioning. J Clin Oncol 16(2):501–514Google Scholar
  44. Ganz PA, Desmond KA, Belin TR, Meyerowitz BE, Rowland JH (1999) Predictors of sexual health in women after a breast cancer diagnosis. J Clin Oncol 17(8):2371–2380Google Scholar
  45. Ganz PA, Greendale GA, Petersen L, Zibecchi L, Kahn B, Belin TR (2000) Managing menopausal symptoms in breast cancer survivors: results of a randomized controlled trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 92(13):1054–1064Google Scholar
  46. Ganz PA, Greendale GA, Petersen L, Kahn B, Bower JE (2003) Breast cancer in younger women: reproductive and late health effects of treatment. J Clin Oncol 21(22):4184–4193Google Scholar
  47. Ganz PA, Land SR, Geyer CE Jr, Cecchini RS, Costantino JP, Pajon ER, Fehrenbacher L, Atkins JN, Polikoff JA, Vogel VG, Erban JK, Livingston RB, Perez EA, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N, Swain SM (2011) Menstrual history and quality-of-life outcomes in women with node-positive breast cancer treated with adjuvant therapy on the NSABP B-30 trial. J Clin Oncol 29(9):1110–1116Google Scholar
  48. Gibbs Z, Lee S, Kulkarni J (2013) Factors associated with depression during the perimenopausal transition. Womens Health Issues 23(5):e301–e307Google Scholar
  49. Gilbert E, Ussher JM, Perz J (2010) Sexuality after breast cancer: a review. Maturitas 66(4):397–407Google Scholar
  50. Goldfarb S, Muhall J, Nelson C, Kelvin J, Dickler M, Carter J (2013) Sexual and reproductive health in cancer survivors. Semin Oncol 40(6):726–744Google Scholar
  51. Goldstat R, Briganti E, Tran J, Wolfe R, Davis SR (2003) Transdermal testosterone therapy improves well-being, mood, and sexual function in premenopausal women. Menopause 10(5):390–398Google Scholar
  52. Goodwin PJ, Ennis M, Pritchard KI, Trudeau M, Hood N (1999) Adjuvant treatment and onset of menopause predict weight gain after breast cancer diagnosis. J Clin Oncol 17(1):120–129Google Scholar
  53. Gracia CR, Freeman EW (2004) Acute consequences of the menopausal transition: the rise of common menopausal symptoms. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 33(4):675–689Google Scholar
  54. Gracia CR, Freeman EW, Sammel MD, Lin H, Mogul M (2007) Hormones and sexuality during transition to menopause. Obstet Gynecol 109(4):831–840Google Scholar
  55. Hale GE, Burger HG (2009) Hormonal changes and biomarkers in late reproductive age, menopausal transition and menopause. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 23(1):7–23Google Scholar
  56. Harlow SD, Karvonen C, Bromberger J, Cauley J, Gold E, Matthews K (2013) Menopause: its epidemiology in women and health. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  57. Howard-Anderson J, Ganz PA, Bower JE, Stanton AL (2012) Quality of life, fertility concerns, and behavioral health outcomes in younger breast cancer survivors: a systematic review. J Natl Cancer Inst 104(5):386–405Google Scholar
  58. Hunter M, Rendall M (2007) Bio-psycho-socio-cultural perspectives on menopause. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 21(2):261–274Google Scholar
  59. Kao A, Binik YM, Amsel R, Funaro D, Leroux N, Khalife S (2012) Biopsychosocial predictors of postmenopausal dyspareunia: the role of steroid hormones, vulvovaginal atrophy, cognitive-emotional factors, and dyadic adjustment. J Sex Med 9(8):2066–2076Google Scholar
  60. Kim E, Jahan T, Aouizerat BE, Dodd MJ, Cooper BA, Paul SM, West C, Lee K, Swift PS, Wara W, Miaskowski C (2009) Changes in symptom clusters in patients undergoing radiation therapy. Support Care Cancer 17(11):1383–1391Google Scholar
  61. Kroman N, Jensen MB, Wohlfahrt J, Ejlertsen B, Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (2008) Pregnancy after treatment of breast cancer–a population-based study on behalf of Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. Acta Oncol 47(4):545–549Google Scholar
  62. Krychman M, Millheiser LS (2013) Sexual health issues in women with cancer. J Sex Med 10(Suppl 1):5–15Google Scholar
  63. Lambertini M, Anserini P, Levaggi A, Poggio F, Del Mastro L (2013) Fertility counseling of young breast cancer patients. J Thorac Dis 5(Suppl 1):S68–S80Google Scholar
  64. Leining MG, Gelber S, Rosenberg R, Przypyszny M, Winer EP, Partridge AH (2006) Menopausal-type symptoms in young breast cancer survivors. Ann Oncol 17(12):1777–1782Google Scholar
  65. Lenz ER, Pugh LC, Milligan RA, Gift A, Suppe F (1997) The middle-range theory of unpleasant symptoms: an update. ANS Adv Nurs Sci 19(3):14–27Google Scholar
  66. Lester J, Bernhard L, Ryan-Wenger N (2012) A self-report instrument that describes urogenital atrophy symptoms in breast cancer survivors. West J Nurs Res 34(1):72–96Google Scholar
  67. Loprinzi CL, Barton DL, Sloan JA, Novotny PJ, Dakhil SR, Verdirame JD, Knutson WH, Kelaghan J, Christensen B (2008) Mayo Clinic and North Central Cancer Treatment Group hot flash studies: a 20-year experience. Menopause 15(4 Pt 1):655–660Google Scholar
  68. Loprinzi CL, Sloan J, Stearns V, Slack R, Iyengar M, Diekmann B, Kimmick G, Lovato J, Gordon P, Pandya K, Guttuso T Jr, Barton D, Novotny P (2009) Newer antidepressants and gabapentin for hot flashes: an individual patient pooled analysis. J Clin Oncol 27(17):2831–2837Google Scholar
  69. Loren AW, Mangu PB, Beck LN, Brennan L, Magdalinski AJ, Patriddge AH, Quinn G, Wallace WH, Oktay K, American Society of Clinical Oncology (2013) Fertility preservation for patients with cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline update. J Clin Oncol 31(19):2500–2510Google Scholar
  70. Malinovszky KM, Gould A, Foster E, Cameron D, Humphreys A, Crown J, Leonard RC, Anglo Celtic Co-operative Oncology Group (2006) Quality of life and sexual function after high-dose or conventional chemotherapy for high-risk breast cancer. Br J Cancer 95(12):1626–1631Google Scholar
  71. Mann E, Smith MJ, Hellier J, Balabanovic JA, Hamed H, Grunfeld EA, Hunter MS (2012) Cognitive behavioral treatment for women who have menopausal symptoms after breast cancer treatment (MENOS 1): a randomized controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 13(3):309–318Google Scholar
  72. Miaskowski C, Aouizerat BE, Dodd M, Cooper B (2007) Conceptual issues in symptom clusters research and their implications for quality-of-life assessment in patients with cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 37:39–46Google Scholar
  73. Murthy V, Chamberlain R (2012) Menopausal symptoms in young survivors of breast cancer: a growing problem without an ideal solution. Cancer Control 19(4):317–329Google Scholar
  74. Nappi RE, Albani F, Santamaria V, Tonani S, Magri F, Martini E, Chiovato L., Polatti F (2010) Hormonal and psycho-relational aspects of sexual function during menopausal transition and at early menopause. Maturitas 67(1):78–83Google Scholar
  75. Nathorst-Böös J, Flöter A, Jarkander-Rolff M, Carlström K, Schoultz Bv (2006) Treatment with percutaneous testosterone gel in postmenopausal women with decreased libido–effects on sexuality and psychological general well-being. Maturitas 53(1):11–18Google Scholar
  76. Neuss MN, Malin JL, Chan S, Kadlubek PJ, Adams JL, Jacobson JO, Blayney DW, Simone JV (2013) Measuring the improving quality of outpatient care in medical oncology practices in the United States. J Clin Oncol 31(11):1471–1477Google Scholar
  77. No Authors (2005) National Institutes of Health State-of-the-Science Conference statement: management of menopause-related symptoms. Ann Intern Med 142(12):1003–1013Google Scholar
  78. Partridge AH, Gelber S, Peppercorn J, Sampson E, Knudsen K, Laufer M, Rosenberg R, Przypyszny M, Rein A, Winer EP (2004) Web-based survey of fertility issues in young women with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 22(20):4174–4183Google Scholar
  79. Phipps AI, Ichikawa L, Bowles EJ, Carney PA, Kerlikowske K, Miglioretti DL, Buist DS (2010) Defining menopausal status in epidemiologic studies: a comparison of multiple approaches and their effects on breast cancer rates. Maturitas 67(1):60–66Google Scholar
  80. Quinn GP, Vadaparampil ST, Gwede CK, Miree C, King LM, Clayton HB, Wilson C, Munster P (2007) Discussion of fertility preservation with newly diagnosed patients: oncologists’ views. J Cancer Surviv 1(2):146–155Google Scholar
  81. Quinn GP, Vadaparampil ST, Lee JH, Jacobsen PB, Bepler G, Lancaster J, Keefe DL, Albrecht TL (2009) Physician referral for fertility preservation in oncology patients: a national study of practice behaviors. J Clin Oncol 27(35):5952–5957Google Scholar
  82. Reinecke JD, Kelvin JF, Arvey SR, Quinn GP, Levine J, Beck LN, Miller A (2012) Implementing a systematic approach to meeting patients’ cancer and fertility needs: a review of the Fertile Hope Centers of Excellence program. J Oncol Pract 8(5):303–308Google Scholar
  83. Rissling MB, Liu L, Natarajan L, He F, Ancoli-Israel S (2011) Relationship of menopausal status and climacteric symptoms to sleep in women undergoing chemotherapy. Support Care Cancer 19(8):1107–1115Google Scholar
  84. Rocca WA, Grossardt BR, de Andrade M, Malkasian GD, Melton LJ 3rd (2006) Survival patterns after oophorectomy in premenopausal women: a population-based cohort study. Lancet Oncol 7(10):821–828Google Scholar
  85. Rogers M, Kristjanson LJ (2002) The impact on sexual functioning of chemotherapy-induced menopause in women with breast cancer. Cancer Nurs 25(1):57–65Google Scholar
  86. Rosen R, Brown C, Heiman J, Leiblum S, Meston C, Shabsigh R, Ferguson D, D’Agostino R Jr (2000) The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI): a multidimensional self-report instrument for the assessment of female sexual function. J Sex Marital Ther 26(2):191–208Google Scholar
  87. Rowland JH, Meyerowitz BE, Crespi CM, Leedham B, Desmond K, Belin TR, Ganz PA (2009) Addressing intimacy and partner communication after breast cancer: a randomized controlled group intervention. Breast Cancer Res Treat 118(1):99–111Google Scholar
  88. Salonen P, Tarkka MT, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen PL, Astedt-Kurki P, Luukkaala T, Kaunonen M (2009) Telephone intervention and quality of life in patients with breast cancer. Cancer Nurs 32(3):177–190, quiz 191–192Google Scholar
  89. Senkus E, Gomez H, Dirix L, Jerusalem G, Murray E, Van Tienhoven G, Westernberg AH, Bottomonley A, Rapion J, Bogaerts J, Di Leo A, Nešković-Konstantinović Z (2014) Attitudes of young patients with breast cancer toward fertility loss related to adjuvant systemic therapies. EORTC study 10002 BIG 3-98. Psychooncology 23(2):173–182Google Scholar
  90. Shifren JL, Braunstein GD, Simon JA, Casson PR, Buster JE, Redmond GP, Burki RE, Ginsburg ES, Rosen RC, Leiblum SR, Caramelli KE, Mazer NA (2000) Transdermal testosterone treatment in women with impaired sexual function after oophorectomy. N Engl J Med 343(10):682–688Google Scholar
  91. Shifren JL, Davis SR, Moreau M, Waldbaum A, Bouchard C, DeRogatis L, Derzko C, Bearnson P, Kakos N, O’Neill S, Levine S, Wekselman K, Buch A, Rodenberg C, Kroll R (2006) Testosterone patch for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in naturally menopausal women: results from the INTIMATE NM1 Study. Menopause 13(5):770–779Google Scholar
  92. Shuster LT, Rhodes DJ, Gostout BS, Grossardt BR, Rocca WA (2010) Premature menopause or early menopause: long-term health consequences. Maturitas 65(2):161–166Google Scholar
  93. Siegel R, DeSantis C, Virgo K, Stein K, Mariotto A, Smith T, Cooper D, Gansler T, Lerro C, Fedewa S, Lin C, Leach C, Cannady RS, Cho H, Scoppa S, Hachey M, Kirch R, Jemal A, Ward E (2012) Cancer treatment and survivorship statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin 62(4):220–241Google Scholar
  94. Sigmon ST, Whitcomb-Smith SR, Rohan KJ, Kendrew JJ (2004) The role of anxiety level, coping styles, and cycle phase in menstrual distress. J Anxiety Disord 18(2):177–191Google Scholar
  95. Simon J, Braunstein G, Nachtigall L, Utian W, Katz M, Miller S, Waldbaum A, Bouchard C, Derzko C, Buch A, Rosenberg C, Lucas J, Davis S (2005) Testosterone patch increases sexual activity and desire in surgically menopausal women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90(9):5226–5233Google Scholar
  96. Soules MR, Sherman S, Parrott E, Rebar R, Santoro N, Utian W, Woods N (2001) Executive summary: Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW). Climacteric 4(4):267–272Google Scholar
  97. Speer JJ, Hillenberg B, Sugrue DP, Blacker C, Kresge CL, Decker VB, Zakalik D, Decker DA (2005) Study of sexual functioning determinants in breast cancer survivors. Breast J 11(6):440–447Google Scholar
  98. Stone SE, Mazmanian D, Oinonen KA, Sharma V (2013) Past reproductive events as predictors of physical symptom severity during the menopausal transition. Menopause 20(8):831–839Google Scholar
  99. Swain SM, Land SR, Ritter MW, Costantino JP, Cecchini RS, Manounas EP, Wolmark N, Ganz PA (2009) Amenorrhea in premenopausal women on the doxorubicin-and-cyclophosphamide-followed-by-docetaxel arm of NSABP B-30 trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat 113(2):315–320Google Scholar
  100. Swain SM, Jeong JH, Geyer CE Jr, Costantino JP, Pajon ER, Fehrenbacher L, Atkins JN, Polikoff J, Vogel VG, Erban JK, Rastogi P, Livingston RB, Perez EA, Mamounas EP, Land SR, Ganz PA, Wolmark N (2010) Longer therapy, iatrogenic amenorrhea, and survival in early breast cancer. N Engl J Med 362(22):2053–2065Google Scholar
  101. Tan O, Bradshaw K, Carr BR (2012) Management of vulvovaginal atrophy-related sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women: an up-to-date review. Menopause 19(1):109–117Google Scholar
  102. Taylor S, Harley C, Ziegler L, Brown J, Velikova G (2011) Interventions for sexual problems following treatment for breast cancer: a systematic review. Breast Cancer Res Treat 130(3):711–724Google Scholar
  103. Thurston RC, Christie IC, Matthews KA (2012) Hot flashes and cardiac vagal control during women’s daily lives. Menopause 19(4):406–412Google Scholar
  104. Tremblay A, Sheeran L, Aranda S (2008) Psychoeducational interventions to alleviate hot flashes: a systematic review. Menopause 15(1):193–202Google Scholar
  105. Waimey KE, Duncan FE, Su HI, Smith K, Wallach H, Jona K, Coutifaris C, Gracia CR, Shea LD, Brannigan RE, Chang RJ, Zelinski MB, Stouffer RL, Taylor RL, Woodruff TK (2013) Future directions in oncofertility and fertility preservation: a report from the 2011 Oncofertility Consortium Conference. J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol 2(1):25–30Google Scholar
  106. Ware JE Jr (2000) SF-36 health survey update. Spine 25(24):3130–3139Google Scholar
  107. Westphal LM, Wapnir IL (2012) Integration and safety of fertility preservation in a breast cancer program. Gynecol Oncol 124(3):474–476Google Scholar
  108. Yanikkerem E, Koltan SO, Tamay AG, Dikayak Ş (2012) Relationship between women’s attitude towards menopause and quality of life. Climacteric 15(6):552–562Google Scholar
  109. Yoo C, Yun MR, Ahn JH, Jung KH, Kim HJ, Kim JE, Park JY, Park KO, Yoon DH, Kim SB (2013) Chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea, menopause-specific quality of life, and endocrine profiles in premenopausal women with breast cancer who received adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy: a prospective cohort study. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 72(3):565–575Google Scholar
  110. Young-McCaughan S (1996) Sexual functioning in women with breast cancer after treatment with adjuvant therapy. Cancer Nurs 19(4):308–319Google Scholar
  111. Zibecchi L, Greendale GA, Ganz PA (2003) Continuing education: comprehensive menopausal assessment: an approach to managing vasomotor and urogenital symptoms in breast cancer survivors. Oncol Nurs Forum 30(3):393–407Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Breast Cancer Research Foundation 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mary Lou Willard French Professor of NursingUniversity of Michigan School of NursingAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.UCLA Schools of Medicine and Public Health, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer CenterLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations