Advertisement

Introduction

  • Daniela ThränEmail author

Abstract

Biomass is the most relevant renewable energy source, with a wide range of possible and established methods to apply biomass for energy generation. In regards to the supply of sustainable energy, not only the provision of technology but also the integration of this technology into the system will be considerably important. This demands a change in bioenergy provision which is comparable to the transition from traditional to modern biomass use. The need for further development in the provision of bioenergy is also underlined by the challenges affecting the biomass resource base, including increasing demands for biomass for food, feed, materials and fuel. Furthermore, this is underlined by the major concerns surrounding factors relating to the land such as soil, nutrients and biodiversity.

Germany has implemented an active policy for the transition of the energy system towards greater use of renewable energy sources more than a decade ago, which has led to a strong increase in the amount of biomass used for electricity, heat and the provision of transport fuel. With relevant shares of electricity from wind and solar the need for better system integration is on the agenda. The situation in Germany can therefore provide interesting insights into the challenges and opportunities of using bioenergy in its new role. This will be elaborated on step by step in this book, starting with issues relating to the market and resource base, then moving on to analysis of the technical options, followed by the modeling of the effects on the German energy system in a case study and in conclusion focusing on the most promising fields as well as the missing elements for a successful transition.

Keywords

Modern biomass provision Flexible bioenergy Transition of the energy system Use of biomass Bioenergy in Germany 

References

  1. 1.
    AGECC, Summary Report and Recommendations (AGECC, New York, 2010)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    BMU, Zeitreihen zur Entwicklung der erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland, unter Verwendung von Daten der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Erneuerbare-Energien-Statistik (AGEE-Stat) (BMU, Berlin, 2012)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
    S. Bringezu, H. Schütz, W. Pengue, M. O’Brien, F. Garcia, R. Sims, R. Howarth, L. Kauppi, M. Swilling; U. A.: UNEP, Assessing Global Land Use: Balancing Consumption with Sustainable Supply. A Report of the Working Group on Land and Soils of the International Resource Panel (2014). ISBN 978-92-807-3330-3Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. Dauber, C. Brown, A.L. Fernando, J. Finnan, E. Krasuska, J. Ponitka, D. Styles, D. Thrän, K.J. Van Groenigen et al., Bioenergy from “surplus” land: environmental and socio-economic implications. BioRisk 7, 5–50 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, K. Seyboth, P. Matschoss, S. Kadner, T. Zwickel, P. Eickemeier, G. Hansen; U. A.: IPCC, IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation. Prepared by Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New York, 2011). ISBN 978-1-107-02340-6Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    EEG, Gesetz für den Vorrang Erneuerbarer Energien (Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz – EEG) Konsolidierte (unverbindliche) Fassung des Gesetzestextes in der ab 1. Januar 2012 geltenden Fassung. Renewable Energy Resource Act of Germany, 2012Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Eurostat (2010) European Commission, Renewable Energy StatisticsGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. Faaij, M. Junginger, C.S. Goh, A general introduction to international bioenergy trade, in International Bioenergy Trade – History, Status & Outlook on Securing Sustainable Bioenergy Supply, Demand and Markets (Springer, Dordrecht/Heidelberg/New York/London, 2014)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (FNR), Anbau nachwachsender Rohstoffe 2012 auf 2,5 Millionen Hektar (FNR, Gülzow, 2012)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gesetz zur Einführung einer Biokraftstoffquote durch Änderung des Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetzes und zur Änderung energie- und stromsteuerrechtlicher Vorschriften vom 18 Dec 2006Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    N. Nakicenovic, A. Grübler, H. Ishitani, T. Johansson, G. Marland, J.R. Moreira, H.-H. Rogner, Climate Change 1995. Second Assessment Report. Chapter B Energy Primer (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, UNDP, 1995)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Junginger, C.S. Goh, A. Faaij, International Bioenergy Trade – History, Status & Outlook on Securing Sustainable Bioenergy Supply, Demand and Markets (Springer, Dordrecht/Heidelberg/New York/London, 2014). ISBN 978-94-007-6981-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Kaltschmitt, H. Hartmann, H. Hofbauer, Energie aus Biomasse: Grundlagen, Techniken und Verfahren (Springer, Berlin, 2009). ISBN 9783540850946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. Liebetrau, J. Clemens, C. Cuhls, C. Hafermann, C. Friehe, P. Weiland, J. Daniel-Gromke, Methane emissions from biogas producing facilities within the agricultural sector. Eng. Life Sci. 10, 595–599 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    K. Naumann, K. Oehmichen, M. Zeymer, K. Meisel, Monitoring Biokraftstoffsektor (Nr. DBFZ Report Nr. 11 (2. Auflage)). (DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gGmbH, 2014)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    REN21, Renewables 2013 Global Status Report (REN21 Secretariat, Paris, 2013). ISBN 978-3-9815934-0-2Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    T. Searchinger, R. Heimlich, R.A. Houghton, F. Dong, A. Elobeid, J. Fabiosa, S. Tokgoz, D. Hayes, T. Yu, Use of U.S. croplands for biofuels increases greenhouse gases through emissions from land-use change. Science 319, 1238–1240 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    K.R. Smith, Health impacts of household fuelwood use in developing countries. Unasylva 57, 41–44 (FAO, Rome, 2006)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stromeinspeisegesetz (1991) Electricity Feed-in Law of GermanyGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BioenergyHelmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZLeipzigGermany
  2. 2.Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum – DBFZLeipzigGermany
  3. 3.Bioenergy SystemsUniversity of LeipzigLeipzigGermany

Personalised recommendations