Measuring the Generalized Friendship Paradox in Networks with Quality-Dependent Connectivity

  • Naghmeh MomeniEmail author
  • Michael G. Rabbat
Conference paper
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI, volume 597)


The friendship paradox is a sociological phenomenon stating that most people have fewer friends than their friends do. The generalized friendship paradox refers to the same observation for attributes other than degree, and it has been observed in Twitter and scientific collaboration networks. This paper takes an analytical approach to model this phenomenon. We consider a preferential attachment-like network growth mechanism governed by both node degrees and ‘qualities’. We introduce measures to quantify paradoxes, and contrast the results obtained in our model to those obtained for an uncorrelated network, where the degrees and qualities of adjacent nodes are uncorrelated. We shed light on the effect of the distribution of node qualities on the friendship paradox. We consider both the mean and the median to measure paradoxes, and compare the results obtained by using these two statistics.


Node Degree Quality Distribution Decay Factor Median Version Critical Degree 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringMcGill UniversityMontréalCanada

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