Requirements Engineering for Semantic Sensors in Crisis and Disaster Management

  • Bojan Božić
  • Mert Gençtürk
  • Refiz Duro
  • Yildiray Kabak
  • Gerald Schimak
Part of the IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology book series (IFIPAICT, volume 448)


This paper describes the requirements engineering methodology used for the definition of semantic sensors in a Crisis and Disaster Management framework. The goal of the framework is effective management of emergencies which depends on timely information availability, reliability and intelligibility. To achieve this, different Command and Control (C2) Systems and Sensor Systems have to cooperate and interoperate. Unless standards and well-defined specifications are used, however, the interoperability of these systems can be very complex. To address this challenge, in the C2-SENSE project, a “profiling” approach will be used to achieve seamless interoperability by addressing all the layers of the communication stack in the security field. The main objective is to develop a profile based Emergency Interoperability framework by the use of existing standards and semantically enriched Web services to expose the functionalities of C2 Systems, Sensor Systems and other Emergency and Crisis Management systems. We introduce the concepts of Semantic Sensors, describe the characteristics of Sensor Systems in Emergency Management, and the methodology of requirements engineering for such a framework.


requirements crisis and disaster management semantic sensors 


  1. 1.
    Seidel, J., Imbery, F., Dostal, P.: Analysis of Historical River Floods – A Contribution Towards Modern Flood Risk Management. INTECH Open Access Publisher (2012)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ulbrich, U., Brücher, T., Fink, A.H., Leckebusch, G.C., Krüger, A., Pinto, J.G.: The central European oods of August 2002: Part 1 Rainfall periods and ood development. Weather, 371–377 (2003)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hart, J.K., Martinez, K.: Environmental Sensor Networks: A revoltion in the Earth system science? Earth-Science Reviews, 177–191 (2006)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Martinez, K., Hart, K., Ong, R., Brennan, S., Mielke, A., Torney, D., Maccabe, A., Maroti, M., Simon, G., Ledeczi, A., et al.: Sensor Network Applications. IEEE Computer (2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Werner-Allen, G., Lorincz, K., Welsh, M., Marcillo, O., Johnson, J., Ruiz, M., Lees, J.: Deploying a Wireless Sensor Network on an Active Volcano. IEEE Internet Computing, 18–22 (March 2006)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jirka, S., Broring, A., Stasch, C.: Applying OGC Sensor WebEnablement to Risk Monitoring and Disaster Management. In: GSDI 11 World Conference,Rotterdam, Netherlands (2009)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement (OGC SWE),
  8. 8.
    Open Geospatial Consortim (OGC),
  9. 9.
    World Wide Web Consortium (W3C),
  10. 10.
    Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Observation Service (OGC SOS),
  11. 11.
    Henson, C.A., Pschorr, J.K., Sheth, A.P., Thirunarayan, K.: Sem-SOS: Semantic sensor observation service. In: IEEE Proceedings of 2009 International Symposiumon Collaborative Technologies and Systems (2009)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP),
  13. 13.
    Seamless Communication for Crisis Management Project (SECRICOM),
  14. 14.
    Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA),
  15. 15.
    Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX),
  16. 16.
    Emergency Data Exchange Language Resource Messaging (EDXL-RM),
  17. 17.
    Global Justice XML Data Model (GJXDM),
  18. 18.
    The Joint Consultation, Command and Control Information Exchange Data Model (JC3IEDM),
  19. 19.
    Emergency Data Exchange Language Hospital Availability Exchange (EDXLHAVE),
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
    Alert Management Service (ALMAS),
  22. 22.
    Event Markup Language (EML),
  23. 23.
    Emergency Data Exchange Language Situation Reporting (EDXL-SitRep),
  24. 24.
    Emergency Data Exchange Language Tracking of Emergency Patients (EDXLTEP),
  25. 25.
    Open Geospatial Consortium Web Services (OWS),
  26. 26.
    Open Geospatial Consortium Keyhole Markup Language (OGC KML),
  27. 27.
    Open Geospatial Consortium Geography Markup Language (OGC GML),
  28. 28.
    Bizer, C., Heath, T., Berners-Lee, T.: Linked Data - The story so far. In: Int. J. Semantic Web Inf. Syst., pp. 1–22 (2009)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cockburn, A.: Writing Effective Use Cases. Addison-Wesley, (2001) Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Coleman, D.: A Use Case Template: draft for discussion. Fusion Newsletter (April 1998)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bojan Božić
    • 1
  • Mert Gençtürk
    • 2
  • Refiz Duro
    • 1
  • Yildiray Kabak
    • 2
  • Gerald Schimak
    • 1
  1. 1.Austrian Institute of TechnologyViennaAustria
  2. 2.Software Research, Development and ConsultancyAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations