Clinical Examination

  • Alexander J. Lampley
  • Christopher E. Gross
  • Mitchell Klement
  • Mark E. EasleyEmail author


The foot and ankle is comprised of an array of joints, ligaments and tendons that act to propel the body forward during ambulation while providing a stable weight bearing surface. While the complex relationship between these bones and soft tissue structures can be challenging, the examiner can obtain valuable diagnostic information from a systemic examination of the foot and ankle. All foot and ankle examinations should include a thorough inspection, gait observation, range of motion and neurovascular examination. Specialized tests can further aid the examiner in making the correct clinical diagnosis.


Foot exam Ankle exam Physical examination 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander J. Lampley
    • 1
  • Christopher E. Gross
    • 1
  • Mitchell Klement
    • 1
  • Mark E. Easley
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA

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