Identification of Malignant Tumors in the Liver

  • Henricus J. M. Handgraaf
  • Floris P. R. Verbeek
  • Cornelis J. H. van de Velde
  • Merlijn Hutteman
  • Alexander L. VahrmeijerEmail author


To date, surgery is the only curative treatment option for patients with resectable metastases in the liver and is regarded as standard-of-care. However, recurrence rates remain high, which might partly be explained by the inability of conventional technologies to detect small lesions. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging is able to detect lesions as small as 1 mm, but only if they are localized on or several millimeters below the liver surface. Several studies reported the identification of otherwise undetectable liver tumors using near-infrared fluorescence imaging. Research in the coming years will have to determine if this technology is truly beneficial for patients requiring resection of malignant liver tumors.


Near-infrared fluorescence Image-guided surgery Malignant liver tumors Metastasectomy Micrometastases Indocyanine green 

Supplementary material

Video 16.1

Identification of metastatic liver cancer (MP4 11,961 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Henricus J. M. Handgraaf
    • 1
  • Floris P. R. Verbeek
    • 1
  • Cornelis J. H. van de Velde
    • 1
  • Merlijn Hutteman
    • 1
  • Alexander L. Vahrmeijer
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryLeiden University Medical CentreLeidenThe Netherlands

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