3D Force Field Spectroscopy

  • Mehmet Z. Baykara
  • Udo D. Schwarz
Part of the NanoScience and Technology book series (NANO)


With recent advances in instrumentation and experimental methodology, noncontact atomic force microscopy is now being frequently used to measure the atomic-scale interactions acting between a sharp probe tip and surfaces of interest as a function of three spatial dimensions, via the method of three-dimensional atomic force microscopy (3D-AFM). In this chapter, we discuss the different data collection and processing approaches taken towards this goal while highlighting the associated advantages and disadvantages in terms of correct interpretation of results. Additionally, common sources of artifacts in 3D-AFM measurements, including thermal drift, piezo nonlinearities, and tip-related issues such as asymmetry and elasticity are considered. Finally, the combination of 3D-AFM with simultaneous scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is illustrated on surface-oxidized Cu(100). We conclude the chapter by an outlook regarding the future development of the 3D-AFM method.


Scanning Tunneling Microscope Drift Rate Scanning Probe Microscopy Tunneling Current Highly Orient Pyrolytic Graphite 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to thank Eric I. Altman, Omur E. Dagdeviren, Harry Mönig, Rubén Pérez, Lucia Rodrigo, Todd C. Schwendemann, Milica Todorović, Berkin Uluutku and Özhan Ünverdi for their invaluable contributions to the experimental and numerical studies presented in this chapter. Financial support from the National Science Foundation through the Yale Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (grant No. MRSEC DMR-1119826) and the Materials World Network program (grant No. MWN DMR-0806893) as well as the US Department of Energy (Basic Energy Sciences grant No. DE-FG02-06ER15834) are gratefully acknowledged. M.Z.B gratefully acknowledges support from the Turkish Academy of Sciences via the TÜBA-GEBİP program and the Marie Curie Actions of the European Commission’s FP7 Program in the form of a Career Integration Grant (grant No. PCIG12-GA-2012-333843).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering and UNAM-Institute of Materials Science and NanotechnologyBilkent UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena (CRISP), Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Department of Chemical and Environmental EngineeringYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

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