Advertisement

Psychological Contract Breach and Violation: The Case of Temporary Workers in Vietnam

  • Tran Thi Bao Le
  • Gina Gaio SantosEmail author
  • Ana Paula Ferreira
Chapter
Part of the Management and Industrial Engineering book series (MINEN)

Abstract

This chapter looks at workers’ perceptions of psychological contract (PC) breach by their employers, and also assesses whether this perception will cause them to experience feelings of contract violation. Although the concept of PC is paramount in explaining the employer-employee exchange relationship, it is a virtually unknown issue amongst HR managers in Vietnam. Moreover, in the last years, the educated workforce in Vietnam, with at least a college degree, has entered the labor market with short-term employment contracts and precarious employment conditions. The aim of this study is to assess the extent of the perception of PC breach and violation amongst these type of workers. An online questionnaire was administered to a sample of 106 workers holding a higher education degree and having short-term employment contracts in Ho Chi Minh City in 2012. The findings showed that these workers experienced a breach in their PC, revealing that their employers failed to fulfill the promises made to them and consequently experienced negative feelings that resulted in in PC violation. This study is the first attempt to explore the concept of PC breach and violation in a cultural and organizational context relatively unknown such as the Vietnamese one.

Keywords

Temporary Work Psychological Contract Employment Relationship Employment Contract Temporary Employee 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Moorman, R. H., & Harland, L. K. (2002). Temporary employees as good citizens: Factors influencing their OCB performance. Journal of Business and Psychology 17, 171–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kalleberg, A. L., Reskin, B. F., & Hudson, K. (2000). Bad jobs in America: Standard and non-standard employment relations and job quality in the United States. American Sociological Review 65, 256–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lepak, D. P., Takeuchi, R., & Snell, S. A. (2003). Employment flexibility and firm performance: Examining the interaction effects of employment mode, environmental dynamism, and technological intensity. Journal of Management, 29, 681–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Watson Wyatt Vietnam (2009). Vietnam HR practices reflect the impact of economic downturn. http://www.smarthrvietnam.com/whatsnew.html. Accessed June 15, 2011.
  5. 5.
    Sinhvientainang (2010). Sinh Vien Tim Viec. http://sinhvientainang.vn/index.php?option=about. Accessed June 15, 2011.
  6. 6.
    Robinson, S. L. (1996). Trust and breach of the psychological contract. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41, 574–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Andersson, L. M. (1996). Employee cynicism: An examination using a contract violation framework. Human Relations, 49, 1395–1418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Robinson, S. L., & Rousseau, D. M. (1994). Violating the psychological contract: Not the exception but the norm. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15, 245–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Robinson, S. L., Kraatz, M. S., & Rousseau, D. M. (1994). Changing obligations and the psychological contract: A longitudinal study. Academy of Management Journal, 37(1), 137–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Herriot, P., Manning, W., & Kidd, J. (1997). The content of the psychological contract. British Journal of Management, 8, 151–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Herriot, P., & Pemberton, C. (1997). Contracting Careers. Human Relations, 49, 750–757.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Robinson, S. L., & Morrison, E. W. (2000). The development of psychological contract breach and violation: A longitudinal study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 525–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Turnley, W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2000). Re-examining the effects of psychological contract violations: Unmet expectations and job dissatisfaction as mediators. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 25–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Coyle-Shapiro, J., & Kessler, I. (2000). Consequences of the psychological contract for the employment relationship: A large scale survey. Journal of Management Studies, 37(7), 903–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Argyris, C. (1960). Understanding organizational behavior. Homewood, Il: Dorsey Press.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wellin, M. (2007). Managing the psychological contract: Using the personal deal to increase business performance. Hampshire: Gower Publishing.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Guest, D., & Conway, N. (2002). Pressure at work and the psychological contract. London: CIPD.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Smithson, J., & Lewis, S. (2000). Is job insecurity changing the psychological contract? Personnel Review, 29(6), 680–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Levinson, H. (1962). Organizational diagnosis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rousseau, D. M. (1995). Psychological contracts in organizations: Understanding written and unwritten agreements. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rousseau, D. M. (2001). Schema, promise and mutuality: The building blocks of the psychological contract. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74(4), 511–541.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sparrow, P. R., & Hiltrop, J. M. (1997). Redefining the field of European human resource management: A battle between national mindsets and forces of business transition. Human Resource Management, 36(2), 201–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Freese, C., & Schalk, R. (2007). How to measure the psychological contract? A critical criteria-based review of measures. South African Journal of Psychology, 38(2), 269–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rousseau, D. M., & Tijoriwala, S. A. (1998). Assessing psychological contracts: Issues, alternatives and measures. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19, 679–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rousseau, D. M., & McLean Parks, M. (1993). The contract of individuals and organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 15, 1–43.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Freese, C., Shalk, R., & Croon, M. (2011). The impact of organizational changes on psychological contracts: A longitudinal study. Personnel Review, 40(4), 404–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Morrison, E. W., & Robinson, S. L. (1997). When employees feel betrayed: A model of how psychological contract violation develops. Academy of Management Review, 22, 226–256.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jafri, M. H. (2011). Influence of psychological contract breach on organizational citizenship behavior and trust. India: National Academy of Psychology (NAOP).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Coyle-Shapiro, J. (2002). A psychological contract perspective on organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 927–946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Robinson, S. L. (1995). Violation of psychological contracts: Impact on employee attitudes. In L. E. Tetrick & J. Barling (Eds.), Changing employment relations: Behavioral and social perspectives (pp. 91–108). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lapalme, M.-E., Simard, G., & Tremblay, M. (2011). The influence of psychological contract breach on temporary workers’ commitment and behaviors: A multiple agency perspective. Journal of Business Psychology, 26, 311–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cropanzano, R., & Prehar, C. A. (2001). Emerging justice concerns in an era of changing psychological contracts. In R. Cropanzano (Ed.), Justice in the workplace: From theory to practice (pp. 245–269). Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Morrison, D. E. (1994). Psychological contracts and change. Human Resource Management, 33(3), 353–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rousseau, D. M. (1989). Psychological and implied contracts in organizations. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 2(2), 121–139.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Suazo, M. M., & Stone-Romero, E. F. (2011). Implications of psychological contract breach. A perceived organizational support perspective. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 26(5), 366–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Aggarwal, U., & Bhargava, S. (2009). Reviewing the relationship between human resource practices and psychological contract and their impact on employee attitude and behaviours: A conceptual model. Journal of European Industrial Training, 33, 4–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Guest, D. (2004). Flexible employment contracts, the psychological contract and employee outcomes: An analysis and review of the evidence. International Journal of Management Reviews, 5/6(1), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    McLean Parks, J., Kidder, D. L., & Gallagher, D. G. (1998). Fitting square pegs into round holes: Mapping the domain of contingent work arrangements onto the psychological contract. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19, 697–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Polavieja, J. G. (2005). Flexibility or polarization? Temporary employment and job tasks in Spain. Socio-Economic Review, 3, 233–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rousseau, D. M., & Schalk, R. (2000). Psychological contracts in employment. Cross-national perspectives. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    OECD. (2002). Employment Outlook. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bernhard-Oettel, C., & Isaksson, K. (2005). Work-related Well-Being and Job Characteristics among “Temps” in Sweden. In N. De Cuyper, K. Isakson, & H. De Witte (Eds.), Employment Contracts and Well-being Among Temporary Employees in Europe. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    McDonald, D. J., & Makin, P. J. (2000). The psychological contract, organizational commitment and job satisfaction of temporary staff. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 21(2), 84–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chambel, M. J., & Castanheira, F. (2007). They don’t want to be temporaries: Similarities between temps and core employees. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28(8), 943–959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Saunders, M. N. K., & Thornhill, A. (2006). Forced employment contract change and the psychological contract. Employee Relations, 28(5), 449–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    De Cuyper, N., & De Witte, H. (2007). Job insecurity in temporary versus permanent employees: Associations with attitudes, well-being, and behavior. Work and Stress, 21(1), 65–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Allan, P. (1999). The temporary workforce is here to stay. Faculty working papers. Paper 26. http://digitalcommons.pace.edu/lubinfaculty_workingpapers/26. Accessed September 01, 2014.
  48. 48.
    Chang, C. P., & Hsu, P. C. (2009). The psychological contract of the temporary employee in the public sector in Taiwan. Social Behavior and Personality, 37(6), 721–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Scheel, T. E., Rigotti, T., & Mohr, G. (2013). HR practices and their impact on the psychological contracts of temporary and permanent workers. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(2), 285–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Beard, K. M., & Edwards, J. R. (1995). Employees at risk: Contingent work and the psychological experience of contingent employees. Trends in Organizational Behavior, 2, 109–126.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Freese, C., & Schalk, R. (1996). Implications of differences in psychological contracts for Human Resource Management. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 5, 501–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Martínez, G., Cuyper, N. D., & Witte, H. D. (2010). Review of temporary employment literature: Perspectives for research and development in Latin America. PSYKHE, 19(1), 61–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Millward, L. J., & Brewerton, P. M. (2000). Psychological contracts: Employee relations for the twenty-first century? International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 15, 1–61.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Van Dyne, L., & Ang, S. (1998). Organizational citizenship behavior of contingent employees in Singapore. Academy of Management Journal, 41, 692–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Von Hippel, C. D., Greenberger, D. B., Heneman, R. L., Mangum, S. L., & Skoglind, J. D. (2000). Voluntary and involuntary temporary employees: predicting satisfaction, commitment, and personal control. Research in the Sociology of Work, 9, 291–309.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gallagher, D. G., & McLean Parks, J. (2001). I pledge thee my troth… contingently. Commitment and the contingent work relationship. Human Resource Management Review, 11, 181–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Rousseau, D. M. (1990). New hire perceptions of their own and their employer’s obligations: A study of psychological contracts. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 11, 389–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Robinson, S. L., & Morrison, E. W. (1995). Psychological contracts and organizational citizenship behavior: The effects of unfulfilled obligations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15, 245–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    De Vos, A., Buyens, D., & Schalk, R. (2003). Psychological contract development during organizational socialization: Adaptation to reality and the role of reciprocity. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24, 537–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rousseau, D. M. (2000). Psychological contract inventory technical report. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Pallant, J. (2007). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS for windows (version 15). Glasgow, Australia: The McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Spies, A. R., Wilkin, N. E., Bentley, J. P., Bouldin, A. S., Wilson, M. C., & Holmes, E. R. (2010). Instrument to measure psychological contract violation in pharmacy students. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 74(6), 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Dubaonhanluchcm.gov.vn. (2012). Phân tích chỉ số cơ cấu cung nhân lực theo ngành nghề - trình độ nghề trên địa bàn thành phố Hồ Chí Minh tháng 02 năm 2012. http://dubaonhanluchcmc.gov.vn/so-lieu-thong-ke/phan-tich-chi-so-co-cau-cung-nhan-luc-theo-nganh-nghe—trinh-do-nghe-tren-dia-ban-thanh-pho-ho-chi-minh-thang-02-nam-2012.aspx#neo_content. Accessed March 15, 2012.
  64. 64.
    Gusan, C., & Kleiner, B. H. (2000). New developments concerning discrimination against temporary employees. Equal Opportunities International, 19(6), 92–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Tallman, R. R. J., & Bruning, N. S. (2008). Relating employees’ psychological contracts to their personality. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23(6), 688–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Bal, P. M., De Lange, A. H., Jansen, P. G. W., & Van Der Velde, M. E. G. (2008). Psychological contract breach and job attitudes: A meta-analysis of age as a moderator. Journal of Vocational Behavior 72, 143–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Bellou, V. (2009). Profiling the desirable psychological contract for different groups of employees: Evidence from Greece. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20(4), 810–830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Netz, Y., & Raviv, S. (2004). Age differences in motivational orientation toward physical activity: An application of social-cognitive theory. The Journal of Psychology, 138(1), 35–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Smulders, P., & Nijhuis, F. (1999). The job demands–Job control model and absence behavior: Results of a three-year longitudinal study. Work and Stress, 13(2), 115–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Sparrow, P. R. (1996). Transitions in the psychological contract: Some evidence from the banking sector. Human Resource Management Journal, 6(4), 75–92.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Han, Y., Song, H. Y., & Chen, X. (2011). From psychological contract breach to violation. The moderated mediating effect of employees’ attribution. Paper presented at the artificial intelligence, management science and electronic commerce (AIMSEC).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Thomas, D. C., Fitzsimmons, S. R., Ravlin, E. C., Au, K. Y., Ekelund, B. Z., & Barzantny, C. (2010). Psychological contracts across cultures. Organization Studies, 31(11), 1437–1458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tran Thi Bao Le
    • 1
  • Gina Gaio Santos
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ana Paula Ferreira
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Management, School of Economics and ManagementUniversity of MinhoBragaPortugal

Personalised recommendations