Taurine 9 pp 623-636 | Cite as

Taurine in 24-h Urine Samples Is Inversely Related to Cardiovascular Risks of Middle Aged Subjects in 50 Populations of the World

  • Miki Sagara
  • Shigeru Murakami
  • Shunsaku Mizushima
  • Longjian Liu
  • Mari Mori
  • Katsumi Ikeda
  • Yasuo Nara
  • Yukio YamoriEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 803)


We previously showed that 24-h urinary taurine (Tau) excretion was inversely associated with mortality due to coronary heart diseases (CHD) and stroke. The aim of this study was to examine the association between 24-h urinary Tau/creatinine (Cre) ratio and cardiovascular disease risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), serum total cholesterol (TC) and prevalence of obesity, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia.

A cross sectional analysis was conducted among 4,211 participants (2,120 men and 2,091 women) aged 48–56 from 50 population samples of 22 countries in the World Health Organization-coordinated Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison (CARDIAC) Study (1985–1994).

According to linear regression analyses adjusted for traditional risk factors such as age, sex and anti-hypertensive treatment, Tau/Cre was inversely associated with BMI, systolic BP, diastolic BP and TC (P for linear trend <0.001, respectively). These associations were not markedly altered by further adjustment for 24-h urinary sodium/Cre, potassium/Cre, calcium/Cre, magnesium/Cre and cohort effects. After adjusting for the traditional risk factors, the prevalence of obesity, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia among the subjects within the lowest quintile of the Tau/Cre ratio was 2.84 (95 % CI: 2.04, 3.96; P for trend <0.001), 1.22 (95 % CI: 0.98, 1.51; P < 0.05) and 2.20 (95 % CI: 1.73, 2.80; P < 0.001) times higher than that in the subjects within the highest quintile. These associations were not appreciably altered by further adjustment for other 24-h urinary markers and cohort effects.

In conclusion, higher Tau/Cre was associated with lower cardiovascular disease risk factors, including BMI, BP, TC, obesity, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia.


Taurine 24-h Urine Cardiovascular disease risk factors Coronary heart disease Stroke Obesity Hypertension Hypercholesterolemia Cross-sectional studies Middle-aged 





Coronary heart diseases




Body mass index


Blood pressure


Total cholesterol


Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison


Spontaneously hypertensive rats








Odds ratios


Cytochrome P450 7A1


Low-density lipoprotein



This study was supported partly by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, the Japanese government, and by donations to the WHO from over 300,000 individuals and companies in total, but had no relationship with industry. The authors thank all principal investigators and their colleagues in 50 study sites of the CARDIAC Study. All the authors report no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miki Sagara
    • 1
  • Shigeru Murakami
    • 2
  • Shunsaku Mizushima
    • 3
  • Longjian Liu
    • 4
  • Mari Mori
    • 5
  • Katsumi Ikeda
    • 6
  • Yasuo Nara
    • 1
  • Yukio Yamori
    • 1
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Preventive Nutritional Medicine, Research Institute for Production DevelopmentInternational (Former WHO-Collaborating) Center for Research on Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular DiseasesKyotoJapan
  2. 2.Department of BioscienceFukui Prefectural UniversityFukuiJapan
  3. 3.Department of Epidemiology and Public HealthYokohama City University Graduate School of MedicineYokohamaJapan
  4. 4.Department of Epidemiology & BiostatisticsDrexel University School of Public HealthPennsylvaniaUSA
  5. 5.Institute for World Health DevelopmentMukogawa Women’s UniversityNishinomiyaJapan
  6. 6.School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical SciencesMukogawa Women’s UniversityNishinomiyaJapan

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