Discrete Control-Based Design of Adaptive and Autonomic Computing Systems

  • Xin An
  • Gwenaël Delaval
  • Jean-Philippe Diguet
  • Abdoulaye Gamatié
  • Soguy Gueye
  • Hervé Marchand
  • Noël de Palma
  • Eric Rutten
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8956)


This invited paper makes an overview of our works addressing discrete control-based design of adaptive and reconfigurable computing systems, also called autonomic computing. They are characterized by their ability to switch between different execution modes w.r.t. application and functionality, mapping and deployment, or execution architecture. The control of such reconfigurations or adaptations is a new application domain for control theory, called feedback computing. We approach the problem with a programming language supported approach, based on synchronous languages and discrete control synthesis. We concretely use this approach in FPGA-based reconfigurable architectures, and in the coordination of administration loops.


Autonomic computing adaptive systems reconfigurable architectures reactive systems synchronous languages discrete control 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    An, X., Rutten, E., Diguet, J.-P., le Griguer, N., Gamatié, A.: Autonomic management of dynamically partially reconfigurable fpga architectures using discrete control. In: In Proc. of the 10th International Conference on Autonomic Computing (ICAC 2013) (June 2013)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Årzén, K.-E.: al. Conclusions of the ARTIST2 roadmap on control of computing systems. ACM SIGBED (Special Interest Group on Embedded Systems) Review 3(3) (July 2006)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Benveniste, A., Caspi, P., Edwards, S., Halbwachs, N., Guernic, P.L., de Simone, R.: The synchronous languages twelve years later. Proc. of the IEEE, Special issue on Embedded Systems 91(1), 64–83 (2003)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Berthier, N., Marchand, H.: Discrete Controller Synthesis for Infinite State Systems with ReaX. In: IEEE International Workshop on Discrete Event Systems, Cachan, France, pp. 420–427 (2014)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brun, Y., et al.: Engineering self-adaptive systems through feedback loops. In: Cheng, B.H.C., de Lemos, R., Giese, H., Inverardi, P., Magee, J. (eds.) Software Engineering for Self-Adaptive Systems. LNCS, vol. 5525, pp. 48–70. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Calinescu, R., Ghezzi, C., Kwiatkowska, M., Mirandola, R.: Self-adaptive software needs quantitative verification at runtime. Communications of the ACM 55(9), 69–77 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chakrabarti, A., de Alfaro, L., Henzinger, T.A., Mang, F.Y.C.: Synchronous and bidirectional component interfaces. In: Brinksma, E., Larsen, K.G. (eds.) CAV 2002. LNCS, vol. 2404, pp. 414–427. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cheng, B.H.C., et al.: Software engineering for self-adaptive systems: A research roadmap. In: Cheng, B.H.C., de Lemos, R., Giese, H., Inverardi, P., Magee, J. (eds.) Software Engineering for Self-Adaptive Systems. LNCS, vol. 5525, pp. 1–26. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chess, D.M., Palmer, C., White, S.R.: Security in an autonomic computing environment. IBM Syst. J. 42(1), 107–118 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    de Lemos, R., et al.: Software engineering for self-adaptive systems: A second research roadmap. In: de Lemos, R., Giese, H., Müller, H.A., Shaw, M. (eds.) Software Engineering for Self-Adaptive Systems. LNCS, vol. 7475, pp. 1–32. Springer, Heidelberg (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Delaval, G., Gueye, S.M.-K., Rutten, E., De Palma, N.: Modular coordination of multiple autonomic managers. In: Proceedings of the 17th International ACM Sigsoft Symposium on Component-based Software Engineering, CBSE 2014, pp. 3–12. ACM, New York (2014)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Delaval, G., Rutten, É.: A domain-specific language for multitask systems, applying discrete controller synthesis. EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems 2007, 084192 (2007)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Delaval, G., Rutten, E., Marchand, H.: Integrating discrete controller synthesis into a reactive programming language compiler. Discrete Event Dynamic Systems 23(4), 385–418 (2013)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gaudin, B., Vassev, E.I., Nixon, P., Hinchey, M.: A control theory based approach for self-healing of un-handled runtime exceptions. In: Proceedings of the 8th ACM International Conference on Autonomic Computing, ICAC 2011, pp. 217–220. ACM, New York (2011)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Halbwachs, N., Baghdadi, S.: Synchronous modeling of asynchronous systems. In: Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, A.L., Sifakis, J. (eds.) EMSOFT 2002. LNCS, vol. 2491, pp. 240–251. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Harel, D., Kugler, H., Pnueli, A.: Synthesis revisited: Generating statechart models from scenario-based requirements. In: Kreowski, H.-J., Montanari, U., Orejas, F., Rozenberg, G., Taentzer, G. (eds.) Formal Methods in Software and Systems Modeling. LNCS, vol. 3393, pp. 309–324. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Harel, D., Naamad, A.: The statemate semantics of statecharts. ACM Trans. Softw. Eng. Methodol. 5(4), 293–333 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hellerstein, J., Diao, Y., Parekh, S., Tilbury, D.: Feedback Control of Computing Systems. Wiley-IEEE (2004)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Heptagon/BZR language,
  20. 20.
    Huebscher, M.C., McCann, J.A.: A survey of autonomic computing: degrees, models, and applications. ACM Comput. Surv. 40(3), 7:1–7:28 (2008)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kephart, J.O., Chess, D.M.: The vision of autonomic computing. IEEE Computer 36(1), 41–50 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kloukinas, C., Yovine, S.: Synthesis of safe, qos extendible, application specific schedulers for heterogeneous real-time systems. In: Proceedings of 15th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems, pp. 287–294 (July 2003)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Marchand, H., Bournai, P., Le Borgne, M., Le Guernic, P.: Synthesis of discrete-event controllers based on the signal environment. Discrete Event Dynamic Systems: Theory and Applications 10(4), 325–346 (2000)CrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Marchand, H., Rutten, É.: Managing multi-mode tasks with time cost and quality levels using optimal discrete control synthesis. In: 14th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (2002)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Patikirikorala, T., Colman, A., Han, J., Wang, L.: A systematic survey on the design of self-adaptive software systems using control engineering approaches. In: ICSE Workshop on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems (SEAMS), Zurich, Switzerland (2012)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ramadge, P.J., Wonham, W.M.: Supervisory control of a class of discrete event processes. SIAM J. Control Optim. 25(1), 206–230 (1987)CrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wallace, C., Jensen, P., Soparkar, N.: Supervisory control of workflow scheduling. In: Advanced Transaction Models and Architectures Workshop (ATMA), Goa, India (1996)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wang, Y., Lafortune, S., Kelly, T., Kudlur, M., Mahlke, S.: The theory of deadlock avoidance via discrete control. In: Principles of Programming Languages, POPL, Savannah, USA, pp. 252–263 (2009)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zhu, X.: Application of control theory in management of virtualized data centres. In: Fifth International Workshop on Feedback Control Implementation and Design in Computing Systems and Networks (FeBID), Paris, France (2010),

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xin An
    • 1
  • Gwenaël Delaval
    • 2
  • Jean-Philippe Diguet
    • 3
  • Abdoulaye Gamatié
    • 4
  • Soguy Gueye
    • 2
  • Hervé Marchand
    • 5
  • Noël de Palma
    • 2
  • Eric Rutten
    • 6
  1. 1.Hefei University of TechnologyHefeiChina
  2. 2.LIGGrenobleFrance
  3. 3.Lab-STICCLorientFrance
  4. 4.LIRMMMontpellierFrance
  5. 5.INRIARennesFrance
  6. 6.INRIAGrenobleFrance

Personalised recommendations