Advertisement

The Effect of Leadership on Organizational Performance

  • Şahin Danişman
  • Şule Betül Tosuntaş
  • Engin Karadağ
Chapter

Abstract

The effect of leadership on organizational performance was examined in this meta-analysis study. A total of 598 research studies were collected as a result of the review, out of which 270 were included in the meta-analysis. The 270 research studies were compiled to obtain a sample group /sector size of 101,232 subjects. The analysis results of the random effect model showed that leadership has a medium-level effect on organizational performance . Of the moderators identified, such as leadership style /approach, sample group /sector, publication type and publication year, it was found that leadership style /approach and publication year were moderator variables.

Keywords

Research Study Random Effect Model Organizational Performance Moderator Variable Leadership Style 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References1

  1. Aboyassin, N. A., & Abood, N. (2013). The effect of ineffective leadership on individual and organizational performance in Jordanian institutions. Competitiveness Review, 23(1), 68–84.*Google Scholar
  2. Adler, R. W., & Reid, J. (2008). The effects of leadership styles and budget participation on job satisfaction and job performance. Asia-Pacific Management Accounting Journal, 3(1), 21–46.*Google Scholar
  3. Ahearne, M. J. (2000). An examination of the effects of leadership empowerment behaviors and organizational citizenship behaviors on sales team performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.*Google Scholar
  4. Akkoç, İ., & Erdoğan, B. Z. (2011). Organizasyon yapısı ve liderliğin iş performansına etkisi. Çağ Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 8(1), 79–108.*Google Scholar
  5. Al-Abrrow, H. A. W. (2013). Transformational leadership and organizational performance in the public healthcare sector: The role of organizational learning and intellectual capital. Irish Journal of Management, 33(1), 27–48.*Google Scholar
  6. Albacete-Sáez, C. A., Fuentes-Fuentes, M. M., & Bojica, A. M. (2011). Quality management, strategic priorities and performance: The role of quality leadership. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 111(8), 1173–1193.*Google Scholar
  7. Alimo-Metcalfe, B. (1998). 360 degree feedback and leadership development. International Journal of Selection & Assessment, 6(1), 35–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alizor, J. O. (2012). Study of the relationship between self-reported leadership styles of charter school principals and their performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.*Google Scholar
  9. Al-Mailam, F. F. (2001). The effects of leadership on hospital performance in public and private hospitals in Kuwait. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of La Verne, La Verne, CA.*Google Scholar
  10. Alves, J. C. (2008). A multilevel analysis of the association among individual capabilities, team leadership behaviors, and performance in China. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Isenberg School of Management, Amherst, MA.*Google Scholar
  11. Ammeter, A. P., & Dukerich, J. M. (2002). Leadership, team building, and team member characteristics in high performance project teams. Engineering Management Journal, 14(4), 3–10.*Google Scholar
  12. Andrews, R., & Boyne, G. A. (2010). Capacity, leadership, and organizational performance: Testing the black box model of public management. Public Administration Review, 70(3), 443–454.*Google Scholar
  13. Aryee, S., Walumbwa, F. O., Zhou, Q., & Hartnell, C. A. (2012). Transformational leadership, innovative behavior, and task performance: Test of mediation and moderation processes. Human Performance, 25(1), 1–25.*Google Scholar
  14. Avolio, B. J. (1999). Full leadership development: Building the vital forces in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  15. Barling, J., Weber, T., & Kelloway, E. K. (1996). Effects of transformational leadership training on attitudinal and financial outcomes: A field experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(6), 827–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bartram, T., & Casimir, G. (2007). The relationship between leadership and follower in-role performance and satisfaction with the leader: The mediating effects of empowerment and trust in the leader. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 28(1), 4–19.*Google Scholar
  17. Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
  18. Bass, B. M., Avolio, B. J., Jung, D. I., & Berson, Y. (2003). Predicting unit performance by assessing transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(2), 207–218.*Google Scholar
  19. Becker, B. E., & Huselid, M. A. (1998). High performance work system and firm performance: A synthesis of research and managerial implications. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Journal, 16, 53–101.Google Scholar
  20. Birasnav, M. (2014). Knowledge management and organizational performance in the service industry: The role of transformational leadership beyond the effects of transactional leadership. Journal of Business Research, 67(8), 1622–1629.*Google Scholar
  21. Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J. P. T., & Rothstein, H. R. (2009). Introduction to meta-analysis. Chichester, UK: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Boyce, L. A., Zaccaro, S. J., & Wisecarver, M. Z. (2010). Propensity for self-development of leadership attributes: Understanding, predicting, and supporting performance of leader self-development. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(1), 159–178.*Google Scholar
  23. Braun, S., Peus, C., Weisweiler, S., & Frey, D. (2013). Transformational leadership, job satisfaction, and team performance: A multilevel mediation model of trust. The Leadership Quarterly, 24(1), 270–283.*Google Scholar
  24. Brown, M. E., & Trevino, L. K. (2006). Ethical leadership: A review and future directions. The Leadership Quarterly, 17, 595–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bycio, P., Hackett, R. D., & Allen, J. S. (1995). Further assessments of Bass’s (1985). Conceptualization of transactional and transformational leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80(4), 468–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Byrd, J. K. (2001). Effective superintendent leadership strategies and management techniques for improving student performance as perceived by superintendents in selected school districts in Texas. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX.*Google Scholar
  27. Carmeli, A., Gelbard, R., & Gefen, D. (2010). The importance of innovation leadership in cultivating strategic fit and enhancing firm performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(3), 339–349.*Google Scholar
  28. Carmeli, A., Schaubroeck, J., & Tishler, A. (2011). How CEO empowering leadership shapes top management team processes: Implications for firm performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(2), 399–411.*Google Scholar
  29. Carmeli, A., & Waldman, D. A. (2010). Leadership, behavioral context, and the performance of work groups in a knowledge-intensive setting. Journal of Technology Transfer, 35(4), 384–400.*Google Scholar
  30. Carson, J. B., Tesluk, P. E., & Marrone, J. A. (2007). Shared leadership in teams: An investigation of antecedent conditions and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 50(5), 1217–1234.*Google Scholar
  31. Cavazotte, F. S., Duarte, C. J. P., & Gobbo, A. M. C. (2013). Authentic leader, safe work: The influence of leadership on safety performance. Brazilian Business Review, 10(2), 95–119.*Google Scholar
  32. Cavazotte, F., Moreno, V., & Hickmann, M. (2012). Effects of leader intelligence, personality and emotional intelligence on transformational leadership and managerial performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(3), 443–455.*Google Scholar
  33. Chan, C. H. S. (2008). Paternalistic leadership styles and follower performance: Examining mediating variables in a multi-level model. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.*Google Scholar
  34. Chan, S. C. H., & Mak, W. M. (2011). Benevolent leadership and follower performance: The mediating role of leader-member exchange (LMX). Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 29(2), 285–301.*Google Scholar
  35. Chen, Y. S., & Chang, C. H. (2012). The determinants of green product development performance: Green dynamic capabilities, green transformational leadership, and green creativity. Journal of Business Ethics, 116(1), 107–119.*Google Scholar
  36. Chen, T. Y., Hwang, S. N., & Liu, Y. (2009). Employee trust, commitment and satisfaction as moderators of the effects of idealized and consideration leadership on voluntary performance: A structural equation investigation. International Journal of Management, 26(1), 127–141.*Google Scholar
  37. Chen, C. C., Wu, J., Ma, M., & Knight, M. B. (2011). Enhancing virtual learning team performance: A leadership perspective. Human Systems Management, 30, 215–228.*Google Scholar
  38. Cheng, J. N. (2013). The effect of kindergarten principals’ leadership behaviors on teacher work performance. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 41(2), 251–262.*Google Scholar
  39. Cherian, J., & Farouq, S. (2013). Does effective leadership style drive financial performance of banks? Analysis in the context of UAE banking sector. International Journal of Economics and Finance, 5(7).*Google Scholar
  40. Chi, N. W., & Pan, S.-Y. (2011). A multilevel investigation of missing links between transformational leadership and task performance: The mediating roles of perceived person-job fit and person-organization fit. Journal of Business and Psychology, 27(1), 43–56.*Google Scholar
  41. Chiu, K. H., & Chen, T. (2011). Leadership as situational factor on personality-performance relationship: An empirical study of the Taiwan’s office machinery sales force. International Journal of Business and Management Science, 5(1), 11–31.*Google Scholar
  42. Chu, L. C., & Lai, C. C. (2011). A research on the influence of leadership style and job characteristics on job performance among accountants of county and city government in Taiwan. Public Personnel Management, 40(2), 101–118.*Google Scholar
  43. Chung, H. M., & Chan, S. T. (2012). Ownership structure, family leadership, and performance of affiliate firms in large family business groups. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 29(2), 303–329.*Google Scholar
  44. Chung, C. N., & Luo, X. R. (2013). Leadership succession and firm performance in an emerging economy: Successor origin, relational embeddedness, and legitimacy. Strategic Management Journal, 34(3), 338–357.*Google Scholar
  45. Clarke, S. G. (2000). Safety culture: Underspecified and overrated? International Journal of Management Reviews, 2(1), 65–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Clarke, S., & Ward, K. (2006). The role of leader influence tactics and safety climate in engaging employees’ safety participation. Risk Analysis, 26(5), 1175–1187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum.Google Scholar
  48. Cole, M. S., Bedeian, A. G., & Bruch, H. (2011). Linking leader behavior and leadership consensus to team performance: Integrating direct consensus and dispersion models of group composition. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(2), 383–398.*Google Scholar
  49. Comez, P. (2013). How ambidexterity and leadership behaviors affect firm performance: The role of market turbulence. The Journal of American Academy of Business, 18(2), 350–358.*Google Scholar
  50. Contartesi, R. A. (2010). School climate: A correlational analysis of superintendent leadership communication and employee performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.*Google Scholar
  51. Daft, R. L., & Marcic, D. (2009). Understanding management. Mason, OH: Thomson Higher Education.Google Scholar
  52. Dalakoura, A. (2010). Examining the effects of leadership development on firm performance. Journal of Leadership Studies, 4(1), 59–70.*Google Scholar
  53. Davis, D. D. (2008). The influence of salesperson leadership as a customer interaction behavior on sales performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL.*Google Scholar
  54. Davis, M. W. (2009). Distributed leadership and school performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The George Washington University, Washington, DC.*Google Scholar
  55. Davis, J. K. (2012). Virtual teams: Examining leadership intervention and the perception of virtual team performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.*Google Scholar
  56. de Oliveira, M. A., Possamai, O., Dalla Valentina, L. V. O., & Flesch, C. A. (2012). Applying Bayesian networks to performance forecast of innovation projects: A case study of transformational leadership influence in organizations oriented by projects. Expert Systems with Applications, 39(5), 5061–5070.*Google Scholar
  57. Deconinck, J., & Beth, M. (2013). The relationship among transformational leadership, supervisory trust, performance and turnover intentions. GSTF International Journal on Business Review, 2(3), 205–211.*Google Scholar
  58. Defee, C. C., Stank, T. P., & Esper, T. (2010). Performance implications of transformational supply chain leadership and followership. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 40(10), 763–791.*Google Scholar
  59. deJong, S. B., & Bruch, H. (2013). The importance of a homogeneous transformational leadership climate for organizational performance. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 8(1), 1–18.*Google Scholar
  60. deLuque, M. S., Washburn, N. T., Waldman, D. A., & House, R. J. (2008). Unrequited profit: How stakeholder and economic values relate to subordinates’ perceptions of leadership and firm performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 53, 626–654.*Google Scholar
  61. Dirks, K. T. (2000). Trust in leadership and team performance: Evidence from NCAA basketball. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(6), 1004–1012.*Google Scholar
  62. Dulewicz, C., Young, M., & Dulewicz, V. (2005). The relevance of emotional intelligence for leadership performance. Journal of General Management, 30(3), 71–86.*Google Scholar
  63. Dutschke, J. (2003). Chief enrollment manager leadership style and enrollment performance: A correlation study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Regent University, Virginia Beach, VA.*Google Scholar
  64. Elenkov, D. S. (2002). Effects of leadership on organizational performance in Russian companies. Journal of Business Research, 55, 467–480.*Google Scholar
  65. Ensley, M. D., Hmieleski, K. M., & Pearce, C. L. (2006). The importance of vertical and shared leadership within new venture top management teams: Implications for the performance of startups. The Leadership Quarterly, 17(3), 217–231.*Google Scholar
  66. Ensley, M. D., Pearce, C. L., & Hmieleski, K. M. (2006). The moderating effect of environmental dynamism on the relationship between entrepreneur leadership behavior and new venture performance. Journal of Business Venturing, 21(2), 243–263.*Google Scholar
  67. Ezzeddine, A. M. (2006). Lean indicators in hospital/healthcare settings and the role of leadership in the diffusion of performance improvement strategies. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI.*Google Scholar
  68. Fazlani, T. A., Ansari, N. H., Nasar, A., Hashmi, P., & Mustafa, M. (2012). Influence of emotional intelligence and leadership performance on organizational development in the prospect of Pakistan’s corporate culture. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 3(9), 1289–1311.*Google Scholar
  69. Felício, J. A., Martins Gonçalves, H., & da Conceição Gonçalves, V. (2013). Social value and organizational performance in non-profit social organizations: Social entrepreneurship, leadership, and socioeconomic context effects. Journal of Business Research, 66(10), 2139–2146.*Google Scholar
  70. Fernandez, S., Cho, Y. J., & Perry, J. L. (2010). Exploring the link between integrated leadership and public sector performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(2), 308–323.*Google Scholar
  71. Fleener, B. A. (2009). A multi-level, multi-score, predictive study of charismatic leadership and performance: The role of gender. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL.*Google Scholar
  72. Floyd, A. (2011). The relationship between staff perceptions of principal leadership and school performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Florida International University, Miami, FL.*Google Scholar
  73. Fritch, E. J. (2013). An examination of transformational leadership style and supply chain management performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, Prescott Valley, AZ.*Google Scholar
  74. Fry, L. W., Hannah, S. T., Noel, M., & Walumbwa, F. O. (2011). Impact of spiritual leadership on unit performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(2), 259–270.*Google Scholar
  75. Furnham, A. (2002). Managers as change agents. Journal of Change Management, 3(1), 21–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gabbert, C. C. (2005). The relationship between chief executive transformational leadership and hospital high performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.*Google Scholar
  77. García-Morales, V. J., Jiménez-Barrionuevo, M. M., & Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, L. (2012). Transformational leadership influence on organizational performance through organizational learning and innovation. Journal of Business Research, 65(7), 1040–1050.*Google Scholar
  78. García-Morales, V. J., Lloréns-Montes, F. J., & Verdú-Jover, A. J. (2008). The effects of transformational leadership on organizational performance through knowledge and innovation. British Journal of Management, 19(4), 299–319.*Google Scholar
  79. García-Morales, V. J., Matías-Reche, F., & Hurtado-Torres, N. (2008). Influence of transformational leadership on organizational innovation and performance depending on the level of organizational learning in the pharmaceutical sector. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 21(2), 188–212.*Google Scholar
  80. Gil, F., Rico, R., Alcover, C. M., & Barrasa, A. (2005). Change-oriented leadership, satisfaction and performance in work groups: Effects of team climate and group potency. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 20(3/4), 312–328.*Google Scholar
  81. Gingras, C. (2006). Effects of managers’ leadership styles and decision-making styles on appraisal of employees’ critical thinking performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Touro University International, Vallejo, CA.*Google Scholar
  82. Grant, A. M. (2012). Leading with meaning: Beneficiary contact, prosocial impact, and the performance effects of transformational leadership. Academy of Management Journal, 55(2), 458–476.*Google Scholar
  83. Griffin, J. D. (2012). Leadership recognition of organizational citizenship behaviors in performance evaluations in Washington state healthcare organizations. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.*Google Scholar
  84. Griffith, J. (2004). Relation of principal transformational leadership to school staff job satisfaction, staff turnover, and school performance. Journal of Educational Administration, 42(3), 333–356.*Google Scholar
  85. Guardia, A. B. (2007). Leadership, group effectiveness, and group performance: An assessment of a theoretical systems model and an observed structural equation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Our Lady of the Lake University, San Antonio, TX.*Google Scholar
  86. Gupta, V. K., Huang, R., & Yayla, A. A. (2011). Social capital, collective transformational leadership, and performance: A resource-based view of self-managed teams. Journal of Managerial Issues, 23(1), 31–45.*Google Scholar
  87. Hall, M. D. (2008). An examination of the transformational leadership behaviors of female head coaches and satisfaction with team performance in division I intercollegiate women’s soccer teams: The mediating role of cohesion. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Denver, Denver, CO.*Google Scholar
  88. Halldórsson, F. (2008). Leadership style, employee job performance and organizational outcomes. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.*Google Scholar
  89. Halverson, S. K. (2002). Content and delivery in charismatic leadership: Effects on follower satisfaction, performance, and attributions of charisma. Unpublished master’s thesis, Rice University, Houston, TX.*Google Scholar
  90. Hammons, L. R. (2013). Relationships among non-academic employee perceptions of manager leadership behaviors, meaningful work, and selected performance drivers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.*Google Scholar
  91. Hankinson, G. (2012). The measurement of brand orientation, its performance impact, and the role of leadership in the context of destination branding: An exploratory study. Journal of Marketing Management, 28(7–8), 974–999.*Google Scholar
  92. Hannah, S. T. (2006). Agentic leadership efficacy: Test of a new construct and model for development and performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE.*Google Scholar
  93. Harrison, D. T. (2000). Transformational leadership and community college effectiveness. Dissertation Abstracts International, 61(02), 438.Google Scholar
  94. Hartmann, F., Naranjo-Gil, D., & Perego, P. (2010). The effects of leadership styles and use of performance measures on managerial work-related attitudes. European Accounting Review, 19(2), 275–310.*Google Scholar
  95. Hauschildt, K., & Konradt, U. (2012). Self-leadership and team members’ work role performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 27(5), 497–517.*Google Scholar
  96. Hawkins, J., & Dulewicz, V. (2009). Relationships between leadership style, the degree of change experienced, performance and follower commitment in policing. Journal of Change Management, 9(3), 251–270.*Google Scholar
  97. Hedges, L. V., & Olkin, I. (1985). Statistical methods for meta-analysis. Orlando, FL: Academic.Google Scholar
  98. Hmieleski, K. M., & Ensley, M. D. (2007). A contextual examination of new venture performance: Entrepreneur leadership behavior, top management team heterogeneity, and environmental dynamism. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28(7), 865–889.*Google Scholar
  99. Hofmann, D. A., & Jones, L. M. (2005). Leadership, collective personality, and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(3), 509–522.*Google Scholar
  100. Hoggard-Williams, C. L. (2012). A survey study to investigate educators’ perceptions of superintendents’ leadership practices and school district performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Regent University, Virginia Beach, VA.*Google Scholar
  101. Howell, J. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1993). Transformational leadership, transactional leadership, locus of control and support for innovation: Key predictors of consolidated-business-unit performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 891–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Howell, J. M., Neufeld, D. J., & Avolio, B. J. (2005). Examining the relationship of leadership and physical distance with business unit performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(2), 273–285.*Google Scholar
  103. Huang, J. (2003a). The effects of perceived coach leadership behavior upon team cohesion and performance for Taiwanese college basketball teams. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, United States Sport Academy, Daphne, AL.*Google Scholar
  104. Huang, J. (2003b). The effects of perceived coach leadership behavior upon team cohesion and performance for Taiwanese college basketball teams (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). United States Sport Academy, Daphne, AL.*Google Scholar
  105. Huang, Y. (2007). Leadership style, leader-member exchange, and performance for a family-run Taiwanese multinational enterprise. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Lynn University, Boca Raton, FL.*Google Scholar
  106. Huang, C. M., Hsu, P. Y., & Chiau, W. L. (2011). Perceptions of the impact of chief executive leadership style on organizational performance through successful enterprise resource planning. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 39(7), 865–878.*Google Scholar
  107. Huang, X., Iun, J., Liu, A., & Gong, Y. (2009). Does participative leadership enhance work performance by inducing empowerment or trust? The differential effects on managerial and non-managerial subordinates. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(1), 122–143.*Google Scholar
  108. Hult, G. T. M., Ketchen, D. J., & Chabowski, B. R. (2007). Leadership, the buying center, and supply chain performance: A study of linked users, buyers, and suppliers. Industrial Marketing Management, 36(3), 393–403.*Google Scholar
  109. Imran, R., Zahoor, F., & Zaheer, A. (2012). Leadership and performance relationship: Culture matters. International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, 3(6), 713–717.*Google Scholar
  110. Indartono, S., Chiou, H., & Chen, C. H. V. (2010). The joint moderating impact of personal job fit and servant leadership on the relationship between the task characteristics of job design and performance. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 2(8), 42–61.*Google Scholar
  111. Ishikawa, J. (2012a). Leadership and performance in Japanese R&D teams. Asia Pacific Business Review, 18(2), 241–258.*Google Scholar
  112. Ishikawa, J. (2012b). Transformational leadership and gatekeeping leadership: The roles of norm for maintaining consensus and shared leadership in team performance. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 29(2), 265–283.*Google Scholar
  113. Islam, T., Aamir, M., Ahmed, I., & Muhammad, S. K. (2012). The impact of transformational and transactional leadership styles on the motivation and academic performance of students at university level. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 2(2), 237–244.*Google Scholar
  114. Ismail, W. K. W., Mohamad, N. A. B., Hussain, G., Rashid, S. Z. A., & Rashid, M. A. (2011). Organizational commitment as mediator of charismatic leadership to model subordinates’ performance and satisfaction. International Journal of Academic Research, 3(6), 379–385.*Google Scholar
  115. Jackson, J. C. (2013). Principal and teacher beliefs about leadership implications for student performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN.*Google Scholar
  116. Jeon, K. S. (2011). The relationship of perception of organization performance and spiritual leadership, workplace spirituality, and learning organization culture in the Korean context. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA.*Google Scholar
  117. Jewell, M. A. (2009). A study of leadership cohesiveness and school performance: An analysis on No Child Left Behind. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Our Lady of the Lake University, San Antonio, TX.*Google Scholar
  118. Jimoh, Y. A., Olayide, R., & Saheed, O. (2012). Influence of leadership styles and emotional intelligence on job performance of local government workers in Osun state, Nigeria. Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences, 3(4), 973–996.*Google Scholar
  119. Joffrion, A. M. (2011). Principal leadership behaviors and school performance scores in southeastern Louisina elementary/middle schools. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond, LA.*Google Scholar
  120. Jones, R. (2013). Examining leadership styles and financial performance within rural electric cooperatives. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Walden University, Minneapolis, MN.*Google Scholar
  121. Judge, T. A., LePine, J. A., & Rich, B. L. (2006). Loving yourself abundantly: Relationship of the narcissistic personality to self- and other perceptions of workplace deviance, leadership, and task and contextual performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(4), 762–776.*Google Scholar
  122. Jung, D. J., & Avolio, B. J. (2000). Opening the black box: An experimental investigation of the mediating effects of trust and value congruence on transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 949–964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Jung, Y., & Takeuchi, N. (2010). Performance implications for the relationships among top management leadership, organizational culture, and appraisal practice: Testing two theory-based models of organizational learning theory in Japan. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(11), 1931–1950.*Google Scholar
  124. Karamat, A. U. (2013). Impact of leadership on organizational performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Applied Sciences, Finland.Google Scholar
  125. Keller, R. T. (2006). Transformational leadership, initiating structure, and substitutes for leadership: A longitudinal study of research and development project team performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(1), 202–210.*Google Scholar
  126. Kellett, J. B., Humhrey, R. H., & Sleeth, R. G. (2002). Empathy and complex task performance: Two routes to leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 13, 523–544.*Google Scholar
  127. Khalid, A., Murtaza, G., Zafar, A., Zafar, M. A., Saqib, L., & Mushtaq, R. (2012). Role of supportive leadership as a moderator between job stress and job performance. Information Management and Business Review, 4(9), 487–495.*Google Scholar
  128. Kieu, H. Q. (2010). Leadership styles and organizational performance: A predictive analysis. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.*Google Scholar
  129. Kissi, J., Dainty, A., & Tuuli, M. (2013). Examining the role of transformational leadership of portfolio managers in project performance. International Journal of Project Management, 31(4), 485–497.*Google Scholar
  130. Klinsontorn, S. (2007). The influence of leadership styles on organizational commitment and employee performances. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL.*Google Scholar
  131. Koech, P. M., & Namusonge, G. S. (2012). The effect of leadership styles on organizational performance at state corporations in Kenya. International Journal of Business and Commerce, 2(1), 1–12.*Google Scholar
  132. Koene, B. A. S., Vogelaar, A. L. W., & Soeters, J. L. (2002). Leadership effects on organizational climate and financial performance: Local leadership effect in chain organizations. The Leadership Quarterly, 13, 193–215.*Google Scholar
  133. Koommoo-Welch, P. (2008). Implicit leadership theories: Perceptions of charisma, people, and performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.*Google Scholar
  134. Korkmaz, M. (2005). Duyguların ve liderlik stillerinin öğretmenlerin performansı üzerinde etkisi. Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Yönetimi, 43, 401–422.*Google Scholar
  135. Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (1995). The leadership challenge. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  136. Kulinskaya, E., Morgenthaler, S., & Staudte, R. G. (2008). Meta analysis: A guide to calibrating and combining statistical evidence. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  137. Lee, P. K. C., Cheng, T. C. E., Yeung, A. C. L., & Lai, K.-H. (2011). An empirical study of transformational leadership, team performance and service quality in retail banks. Omega, 39(6), 690–701.*Google Scholar
  138. Lee, Y. K., Kim, Y. S., Son, M. H., & Lee, D. J. (2011). Do emotions play a mediating role in the relationship between owner leadership styles and manager customer orientation, and performance in service environment? International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(4), 942–952.*Google Scholar
  139. Leroy, H., Palanski, M. E., & Simons, T. (2012). Authentic leadership and behavioral integrity as drivers of follower commitment and performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 107(3), 255–264.*Google Scholar
  140. Li, C., & Hung, C. (2009). The influence of transformational leadership on workplace relationships and job performance. Social Behavior and Personality, 37(8), 1129–1142.*Google Scholar
  141. Liang, S.-G., & Steve Chi, S. C. (2012). Transformational leadership and follower task performance: The role of susceptibility to positive emotions and follower positive emotions. Journal of Business and Psychology, 28(1), 17–29.*Google Scholar
  142. Liaw, Y.-J., Chi, N.-W., & Chuang, A. (2009). Examining the mechanisms linking transformational leadership, employee customer orientation, and service performance: The mediating roles of perceived supervisor and coworker support. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25(3), 477–492.*Google Scholar
  143. Lievens, I., & Vlerick, P. (2014). Transformational leadership and safety performance among nurses: The mediating role of knowledge‐related job characteristics. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 70(3), 651–661.*Google Scholar
  144. Lim, B. C., & Ployhart, R. E. (2004). Transformational leadership: Relations to the five-factor model and team performance in typical and maximum contexts. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(4), 610–621.*Google Scholar
  145. Limsila, K., & Ogunlana, S. O. (2007). Performance and leadership outcome correlates of leadership styles and subordinate commitment. Engineering, Constructing and Architectural Management, 15(2), 164–184.*Google Scholar
  146. Liu, K. L. (2005). The relationship of business school performance to deans’ self-perceived leadership styles in Taiwan. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Montana, Missoula, MT.*Google Scholar
  147. Liu, Y. (2012). Linking authentic leadership to positive employee health, behavioral engagement, and job performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA.*Google Scholar
  148. Liu, J., Kwan, H. K., Fu, P. P., & Mao, Y. (2013). Ethical leadership and job performance in China: The roles of workplace friendships and traditionality. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 86(4), 564–584.*Google Scholar
  149. Lloréns Montes, F. J., Ruiz Moreno, A., & García Morales, V. (2005). Influence of support leadership and teamwork cohesion on organizational learning, innovation and performance: An empirical examination. Technovation, 25(10), 1159–1172.*Google Scholar
  150. Lorinkuva, N. M., Pearsall, M. J., & Sims, H. P. (2013). Examining the differential longitudinal performance of directive versus empowering leadership in teams. Academy of Management Journal, 56(2), 573–596.*Google Scholar
  151. Loshali, S., & Krishnan, V. R. (2013). Strategic human resource management and firm performance: Mediating role of transformational leadership. Journal of Strategic Human Resource Management, 2(1), 9–19.*Google Scholar
  152. Lyon, J. S. (2003). Does distant leadership make a difference? Exploring the effects of leadership and substitutes for leadership on virtual worker performance and satisfaction. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.*Google Scholar
  153. Marshall, G. W., Brown, T. J., Mowen, J. C., & Flaherty, K. E. (2008). Leadership propensity and sales performance among sales personnel and managers in a specialty retail store setting. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 29(1), 43–59.*Google Scholar
  154. Martínez-Córcoles, M., Gracia, F. J., Tomás, I., Peiró, J. M., & Schöbel, M. (2013). Empowering team leadership and safety performance in nuclear power plants: A multilevel approach. Safety Science, 51(1), 293–301.*Google Scholar
  155. Matzler, K., Schwarz, E., Deutinger, N., & Harms, R. (2008). The relationship between transformational leadership, product innovation and performance in SMEs. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 21(2), 139–152.*Google Scholar
  156. McClelland, J. R. (2008). Leading a volunteer organization: Impact of leadership styles on the performance of boy scout councils. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.*Google Scholar
  157. McColl-Kennedy, J. R., & Anderson, R. D. (2002). Impact of leadership style and emotions on subordinate performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 13, 545–559.*Google Scholar
  158. McGrath, G. R., & MacMillan, I. C. (2000). Entrepreneurial mindset: Strategies for continuously creating opportunity in an age of uncertainty. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  159. McMurray, A. J., Islam, M. M., Sarros, J. C., & Pirola-Merlo, A. (2012). The impact of leadership on workgroup climate and performance in a non-profit organization. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 33(6), 522–549.*Google Scholar
  160. Mehra, A., Smith, B. R., Dixon, A. L., & Robertson, B. (2006). Distributed leadership in teams: The network of leadership perceptions and team performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 17(3), 232–245.*Google Scholar
  161. Mekraz, A. (2011). Impacting retail store performance: A correlational study of the relationship between transformational and transactional leadership style and bottom line performance indicators. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.*Google Scholar
  162. Menges, J. I., Walter, F., Vogel, B., & Bruch, H. (2011). Transformational leadership climate: Performance linkages, mechanisms, and boundary conditions at the organizational level. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(5), 893–909.*Google Scholar
  163. Menguc, B., Auh, S., & Shih, E. (2007). Transformational leadership and market orientation: Implications for the implementation of competitive strategies and business unit performance. Journal of Business Research, 60(4), 314–321.*Google Scholar
  164. Mohammed, S., & Nadkarni, S. (2011). Temporal diversity and team performance: The moderating role of team temporal leadership. Academy of Management Journal, 54(3), 489–508.*Google Scholar
  165. Mora-Whitehurst, R. (2009). The relationship between elementary principals’ visionary leadership and students’ reading performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Barry University, Miami, FL.*Google Scholar
  166. Moreno, R. (2009). The relationship between the leadership styles of Texas catholic high school and middle school principals and student performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Our Lady of the Lake University, San Antonio, TX.*Google Scholar
  167. Moynihan, D. P., Pandey, S. K., & Wright, B. E. (2012). Setting the table: How transformational leadership fosters performance information use. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 22(1), 143–164.*Google Scholar
  168. Muchiri, M. K., & Cooksey, R. W. (2012). Examining the effects of substitutes for leadership on performance outcomes. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(8), 817–836.*Google Scholar
  169. Munley, A. E. (2007). CEO leadership behaviors, top management teams, and organizational performance: A study of Guatemalan organizations. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Regent University, Virginia Beach, VA.*Google Scholar
  170. Murphy, P. R., Dalenberg, D. R., & Daley, J. M. (1990). Improving survey responses with postcards. Industrial Marketing Management, 19, 349–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Mwendia, K. M. (2006). Relationship of transformational leadership competencies to financial performance: As applied to the hospitality industry. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.*Google Scholar
  172. Neufeld, D. J., Wan, Z., & Fang, Y. (2010). Remote leadership, communication effectiveness and leader performance. Group Decision and Negotiation, 19(3), 227–246.*Google Scholar
  173. Noruzy, A., Dalfard, V. M., Azhdari, B., Nazari-Shirkouhi, S., & Rezazadeh, A. (2013). Relations between transformational leadership, organizational learning, knowledge management, organizational innovation, and organizational performance: An empirical investigation of manufacturing firms. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 64(5–8), 1073–1085.*Google Scholar
  174. O’Connell, E. L. (2003). Team potency and transformational leadership: Predicting performance in service-sector teams. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Alliant International University of San Diego, San Diego, CA.*Google Scholar
  175. Obiwuru, T. C., Okwu, A. T., Akpa, V. O., & Nwankwere, I. A. (2011). Effects of leadership style on organizational performance: A survey of selected small scale enterprises in Ikosi-Ketu council development area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Australian Journal of Business and Management Research, 1(7), 100–111.*Google Scholar
  176. Odusami, K. T., Iyagba, R. R. O., & Omirin, M. M. (2003). The relationship between project leadership, team composition and construction project performance in Nigeria. International Journal of Project Management, 21(7), 519–527.*Google Scholar
  177. Ohlson, M. (2009). A study of school culture, leadership, teacher quality and student outcomes via a performance framework in elementary schools participating in a school reform initiative. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.*Google Scholar
  178. Olinger, J. L. (2010). Nursing home leadership styles and performance outcomes: A quantitative study about leader relationships. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.*Google Scholar
  179. Osborn, R. N., & Marion, R. (2009). Contextual leadership, transformational leadership and the performance of international innovation seeking alliances. The Leadership Quarterly, 20(2), 191–206.*Google Scholar
  180. Oshinubi, O. O. (2007). The influence of project managers’ leadership styles on project team performance in construction industry. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.*Google Scholar
  181. Ozcelik, H., Langton, N., & Aldrich, H. (2008). Doing well and doing good: The relationship between leadership practices that facilitate a positive emotional climate and organizational performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23(2), 186–203.*Google Scholar
  182. Panagopoulos, N. G., & Avlonitis, G. J. (2010). Performance implications of sales strategy: The moderating effects of leadership and environment. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 27(1), 46–57.*Google Scholar
  183. Patiar, A., & Mia, L. (2009). Transformational leadership style, market competition and departmental performance: Evidence from luxury hotels in Australia. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28(2), 254–262.*Google Scholar
  184. Peterson, S. J., Galvin, B. M., & Lange, D. (2012). CEO servant leadership: Exploring executive characteristics and firm performance. Personnel Psychology, 65(3), 565–596.*Google Scholar
  185. Peterson, S. J., Walumbwa, F. O., Avolio, B. J., & Hannah, S. T. (2012). The relationship between authentic leadership and follower job performance: The mediating role of follower positivity in extreme contexts. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(3), 502–516.*Google Scholar
  186. Phillips, J. M. (2012). The enterpreneurial esquire: Enterpreneurial climate as a mediator between transformational leadership and performance in law firms. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.*Google Scholar
  187. Phillips, D. R. (2013). Distributed leadership and the academic performance of international baccalaureate (IB) world schools. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Keiser University, Fort Lauderdale, FL.*Google Scholar
  188. Piccolo, R. F., Greenbaum, R., Den Hartog, D. N., & Folger, R. (2010). The relationship between ethical leadership and core job characteristics. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31, 259–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Pillai, R., & Willaims, E. A. (2004). Transformational leadership, self-efficacy, group cohesiveness, commitment, and performance. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17(2), 144–159.*Google Scholar
  190. Pomfret, D. T. (2008). Leadership in the project environment: A correlational study of leadership practices and project performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.*Google Scholar
  191. Popa, B. M. (2012). The relationship between leadership effectiveness and organizational performance. Journal of Defense Resources Management, 3(1/4), 123–127.Google Scholar
  192. Pratt, Z. L. (2004). An investigation of the relationship between external environment, mission and strategy, leadership, organizational culture, and performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.*Google Scholar
  193. Pritzker, M. A. (2001). The relationship among CEO dispositional attributes, transformational leadership behaviors and performance effectiveness. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL.*Google Scholar
  194. Puni, A., Ofei, S. B., & Okoe, A. (2014). The effect of leadership styles on firm performance in Ghana. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 6(1), 177–185.*Google Scholar
  195. Quigley, N. R. (2003). The relationship between leader core self-evaluations, team feedback, leader efficacy, transformational leadership, team efficacy, team goals, team action and transition processes, and team performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.*Google Scholar
  196. Rank, J., Carsten, J. M., Unger, J. M., & Spector, P. E. (2007). Proactive customer service performance: Relationships with individual, task, and leadership variables. Human Performance, 20(4), 363–390.*Google Scholar
  197. Rank, J., Nelson, N. E., Allen, T. D., & Xu, X. (2009). Leadership predictors of innovation and task performance: Subordinates’ self-esteem and self-presentation as moderators. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 82, 465–489.*Google Scholar
  198. Rich, P. B. (2014). The impact of the relationship between ethical leader behavior, transformational leadership, and organizational performance moderated by organizational hierarchy. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.*Google Scholar
  199. Rios, L. A. (2010). The relationship between emerging leadership behavior in children and their academic performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Our Lady of the Lake University, San Antonio, TX.*Google Scholar
  200. Rogers, T. A. (2000). The role of transformational leadership in salesperson’s motivation and performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL.*Google Scholar
  201. Roi, R. C. (2006). Leadership, corporate culture and financial performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.*Google Scholar
  202. Rowe, W. G. (2001). Creating wealth in organizations: The role of strategic leadership. Academy of Management Executive, 15, 81–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Rowold, J. (2011). Relationship between leadership behaviors and performance: The moderating role of a work team’s level of age, gender, and cultural heterogeneity. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(6), 628–647.*Google Scholar
  204. Rowold, J., & Rohmann, A. (2009). Transformational and transactional leadership styles, followers’ positive and negative emotions, and performance in German nonprofit orchestras. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 20(1), 41–59.*Google Scholar
  205. Rus, D., van Knippenberg, D., & Wisse, B. (2010). Leader power and leader self-serving behavior: The role of effective leadership beliefs and performance information. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46(6), 922–933.*Google Scholar
  206. Russ, F. A., McNeilly, K. M., & Comer, J. M. (1996). Leadership, decision making and performance of sales managers: A multi-level approach. Journal of Personal Selling and Management, 16(3), 1–15.Google Scholar
  207. Sabir, M. S., Iqbal, J. J., Rehman, K. U., Shah, K. A., & Yameen, M. (2012). Impact of corporate ethical values on ethical leadership and employee performance. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(2), 163–171.*Google Scholar
  208. Salanova, M., Lorente, L., Chambel, M. J., & Martínez, I. M. (2011). Linking transformational leadership to nurses‘extra‐role performance: The mediating role of self‐efficacy and work engagement. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 67(10), 2256–2266.*Google Scholar
  209. Salman, Z., Riaz, A., Saifullah, M., & Rashid, M. (2011). Leadership styles and employee performance (A case study of Shakarganj Mills Limited Jhang Pakistan). Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 3(6), 257–267.*Google Scholar
  210. Sam, M., Fazli, M., Tahir, M. N. H., & Abu Bakar, K. (2012). Owner-managers of SMEs in it sector: Leadership and company performance. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(14), 195–205.*Google Scholar
  211. Samad, S. (2012). The influence of innovation and transformational leadership on organizational performance. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 57, 486–493.*Google Scholar
  212. Sandell, K. (2012). Transformational leadership, engagement, and performance: A new perspective. Unpublished master’s thesis, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.*Google Scholar
  213. Sani, A., & Maharani, V. (2012). The impacts of transformational leadership and organizational commitment on job performance with the among lecturers of faculty in the Islamic Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang University: The mediating effects of organizational citizenship behavior. International Journal of Academic Research, 4(4), 102–106.*Google Scholar
  214. Santora, J. C., Seaton, W., & Sarros, J. C. (1999). Changing times: Entrepreneurial leadership in a community-based nonprofit organization. Journal of Leadership Studies, 6(3/4), 101–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Sarwat, N., Hayat, K., Qureshi, J. A., & Ali, M. (2011). Impact of strategic leadership on organizational performance, in the context of job satisfaction and organizational commitment, evidence form educational institutions of Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 3(4), 658–675.*Google Scholar
  216. Sawati, M. J., Anwar, S., & Majoka, M. I. (2011). Principals’ leadership styles and their impact on schools’ academic performance at secondary level in Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa, Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 3(1), 1038–1048.*Google Scholar
  217. Schyns, B., & Schilling, J. (2013). How bad are the effects of bad leaders? A meta-analysis of destructive leadership and its outcomes. The Leadership Quarterly, 24(1), 138–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Shahhosseini, M., Silong, A. D., & Ismaill, I. A. (2013). Relationship between transactional, transformational leadership styles, emotional intelligence and job performance. Journal of Arts, Science & Commerce, 4(1/1), 15–22.*Google Scholar
  219. Shannahan, K. L. (2006). The relationship of salesperson coachability, trait competitiveness, and leadership style on salesperson performance: An interactionist perspective. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Memphis, Memphis, TN.*Google Scholar
  220. Shannahan, K. L. J., Bush, A. J., & Shannahan, R. J. (2012). Are your salespeople coachable? How salesperson coachability, trait competitiveness, and transformational leadership enhance sales performance. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 41(1), 40–54.*Google Scholar
  221. Sheppard, L. S. (2007). The relationship between student performance and leadership practices as perceived by principals and selected site-based decision making (SBDM) committee members of middle schools in Region 5 Education Service Center (ESC), Texas: A cohort study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.*Google Scholar
  222. Shriberg, M. P. (2002). Sustainability in U.S. higher education: Organizational factors influencing campus environmental performance and leadership. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.*Google Scholar
  223. Silver, S. R. (2000). Perceptions of empowerment in engineer workgroups: The linkage to transformational leadership and performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC.*Google Scholar
  224. Simon, M. R. (2008). An investigation of Bass’ leadership theory on organizational performance of small and medium enterprises in Trinidad and Tobago. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL.*Google Scholar
  225. Sivasubramaniam, N., Murry, W. D., Avolio, B. J., & Jung, D. I. (2002). A longitudinal model of the effects of team leadership and group potency on group performance. Group & Organization Management, 27(1), 66–96.*Google Scholar
  226. Soileau, C. B. (2007). High school principals‘perceived leadership practices and their relationship to student performance on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS): A cohort study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.*Google Scholar
  227. Sosik, J. J. (1997). Effect of transformational leadership and anonymity on idea generation in computer-mediated groups. Group & Organization Management, 22(4), 460–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Sosik, J. J. (2001). Self-other agreement on charismatic leadership: Relationships with work attitudes and managerial performance. Group & Organization Management, 26(4), 484–511.*Google Scholar
  229. Sosik, J. J., Juzbasich, J., & Chun, J. U. (2011). Effects of moral reasoning and management level on ratings of charismatic leadership, in-role and extra-role performance of managers: A multi-source examination. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(2), 434–450.*Google Scholar
  230. Sosik, J. J., Potosky, D., & Jung, D. I. (2002). Adaptive self-regulation: Meeting others’ expectations of leadership and performance. The Journal of Social Psychology, 142(2), 211–232.*Google Scholar
  231. Spalding, S. M. (2010). Exploring the effect of athlete leadership on the cohesion-performance relationship. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON.*Google Scholar
  232. Srivastava, A., Bartol, K. M., & Locke, E. A. (2006). Empowering leadership in management teams: Effects on knowledge sharing, efficacy, and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 49(6), 1239–1251.*Google Scholar
  233. Staheli, N. (2013). Return & report: The role of leadership and performance measurement systems in employee engagement. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI.*Google Scholar
  234. Stanley, C. L. (2001). Examination of group supervision: Cohesiveness and supervisor leadership as predictors of intern performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Seattle Pacific University, Seattle, WA.*Google Scholar
  235. Stark, E., & Poppler, P. (2009). Leadership, performance evaluations, and all the usual suspects. Personnel Review, 38(3), 320–338.*Google Scholar
  236. Steyrer, J., Schiffinger, M., & Lang, R. (2008). Organizational commitment-A missing link between leadership behavior and organizational performance? Scandinavian Journal of Management, 24(4), 364–374.*Google Scholar
  237. Stigall, D. J. (2005). A vision for a theory of competent leader communication: The impact of perceived leader communication behaviors on emergent leadership and relational and performance outcomes in collaborative groups. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY.*Google Scholar
  238. Strøm, R., D’Espallier, B., & Mersland, R. (2014). Female leadership, performance, and governance in microfinance institutions. Journal of Banking & Finance, 42, 60–75.*Google Scholar
  239. Suwannapirom, S. (2005). Transformational and transactional leadership and performance outcomes of Japanese and U.S. managers in Thailand. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Burapha University, Thailand.*Google Scholar
  240. Tai, C. C. L., Chang, C. M., Hong, J. Y., & Chen, L. C. (2012). Alternative models for the relationship among leadership, organizational citizenship behavior, and performance: A study of new product development teams in Taiwan. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 57, 511–517.*Google Scholar
  241. Taylor, T. R. (2010). The degree to which leaders’ cultural intelligence, leadership skills, and NPO performance correlate. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.*Google Scholar
  242. Thomas, D. J. (2007). A new lense: The relationship between teacher leadership style and performance evaluation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Fordham University, Bronx, NY.*Google Scholar
  243. Thompson, K. J. (2000). Charismatic leadership and its effects on team cognitions, behaviors, and performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo.*Google Scholar
  244. Tourigny, L. (2001). Relationship among servant-leadership, altruism and social performance: A study of American presidents. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Concordia University, Montréal, QC.*Google Scholar
  245. Tsaia, W., Chen, H., & Cheng, J. (2009). Employee positive moods as a mediator linking transformational leadership and employee work outcomes. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20(1), 206–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Tse, H. H. M., & Chiu, W. C. K. (2014). Transformational leadership and job performance: A social identity perspective. Journal of Business Research, 67(1), 2827–2835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Tung, H., & Chang, Y. (2011). Effects of empowering leadership on performance in management teams: Mediating effects of knowledge sharing and team cohesion. Journal of Chinese Human Resource Management, 2(1), 43–60.*Google Scholar
  248. Tuytens, M., & Devos, G. (2012). Importance of system and leadership in performance appraisal. Personnel Review, 41(6), 756–776.*Google Scholar
  249. Ullah, S., Ullah, A., & Durrani, B. (2011). Effect of leadership on employees performance in multinational pharmaceutical companies in Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 2(9), 286–299.Google Scholar
  250. Van Woerkom, M., & De Reuver, R. S. (2009). Predicting excellent management performance in an intercultural context: A study of the influence of multicultural personality on transformational leadership and performance. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20(10), 2013–2029.*Google Scholar
  251. Vasilaki, A. (2011). The relationship between transformational leadership and postacquisition performance. International Studies of Management and Organization, 41(3), 42–58.*Google Scholar
  252. Verdigets, F. L. (2008). Insights into leadership: The role of political skill, social skill, and self-monitoring in mediating the relationship between transformational leadership and job performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Auburn University, Auburn, AL.*Google Scholar
  253. Vigoda-Gadot, E. (2007). Leadership style, organizational politics, and employees’ performance: An empirical examination of two competing models. Personnel Review, 36(5), 661–683.*Google Scholar
  254. Wallace, J. M. (2006). The relationship of leadership behaviors with follower performance: A study of alternative schools. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Regent University, Virginia Beach, VA.*Google Scholar
  255. Walrath, D. (2011). A quantitative correlational study: Nurse leadership and communication effect on psychiatric nurse performance and retention. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.*Google Scholar
  256. Walumbwa, F. O., Avolio, B. J., & Zhu, W. (2008). How transformational leadership weaves its influence on individual job performance: The role of identification and efficacy beliefs. Personnel Psychology, 61(4), 793–825.*Google Scholar
  257. Walumbwa, F. O., & Hartnell, C. A. (2011). Understanding transformational leadership-employee performance links: The role of relational identification and self‐efficacy. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 84(1), 153–172.*Google Scholar
  258. Walumbwa, F. O., Mayer, D. M., Wang, P., Wang, H., Workman, K., & Christensen, A. L. (2011). Linking ethical leadership to employee performance: The roles of leader-member exchange, self-efficacy, and organizational identification. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 115(2), 204–213.*Google Scholar
  259. Walumbwa, F. O., Morrison, E. W., & Christensen, A. L. (2012). Ethical leadership and group in-role performance: The mediating roles of group conscientiousness and group voice. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(5), 953–964.*Google Scholar
  260. Wang, L. (2011). An alternative explanation for transformational leadership effectiveness: The role of leader proactive feedback-seeking behavior in the relationship between transformational leadership and subordinate performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The State University of New York, New York, NY.*Google Scholar
  261. Wang, A. C., Chiang, J. T.-J., Tsai, C.-Y., Lin, T.-T., & Cheng, B.-S. (2013). Gender makes the difference: The moderating role of leader gender on the relationship between leadership styles and subordinate performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 122(2), 101–113.*Google Scholar
  262. Wang, H., Law, K. S., Hackett, R. D., Wang, D., & Chen, Z. X. (2005). Leader-member exchange as a mediator of the relationship between transformational leadership and followers’ performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 48(3), 420–432.*Google Scholar
  263. Wang, H., Tsui, A. S., & Xin, K. R. (2011). CEO leadership behaviors, organizational performance, and employees’ attitudes. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(1), 92–105.*Google Scholar
  264. Watson, W. E., Johnson, L., & Zgourides, G. D. (2002). The influence of ethnic diversity on leadership, group process, and performance: An examination of learning teams. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 26, 1–16.*Google Scholar
  265. Wei, F., Yuan, X., & Di, Y. (2010). Effects of transactional leadership, psychological empowerment and empowerment climate on creative performance of subordinates: A cross-level study. Frontiers of Business Research in China, 4(1), 29–46.*Google Scholar
  266. Weng, L. C., Su, C. W., & Lai, Y. C. (2011). Superior service performance through transformational leadership: A cross-level study of a large Taiwanese commercial bank. Asia Pacific Management Review, 16(2), 181–195.*Google Scholar
  267. Wilderom, C. P. M., van den Berg, P. T., & Wiersma, U. J. (2012). A longitudinal study of the effects of charismatic leadership and organizational culture on objective and perceived corporate performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(5), 835–848.*Google Scholar
  268. Willey, S. A. (2011). The relationship between superintendent leadership strategies and management techniques and student performance as perceived by superintendents in Illinois school districts: A replication and an extension of Byrd’s 2000 study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Western Illinois University, Macomb, IL.*Google Scholar
  269. Wilson, C. L. (2008). A relational study of leadership spirituality and organizational performance in home health care agencies. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.*Google Scholar
  270. Wintering, V. O. (2008). The relationship between K-12 principal leadership, self- efficacy and academic performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.*Google Scholar
  271. Wu, M. (2012). Moral leadership and work performance: Testing the mediating and interaction effects in China. Chinese Management Studies, 6(2), 284–299.*Google Scholar
  272. Wu, T. C., Chang, S. H., Shu, C. M., Chen, C. T., & Wang, C. P. (2011). Safety leadership and safety performance in petrochemical industries: The mediating role of safety climate. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 24(6), 716–721.*Google Scholar
  273. Wu, T. C., Chen, C. H., & Li, C. C. (2008). A correlation among safety leadership, safety climate and safety performance. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 21(3), 307–318.*Google Scholar
  274. Xenikou, A., & Simosi, M. (2006). Organizational culture and transformational leadership as predictors of business unit performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(6), 566–579.*Google Scholar
  275. Xu, X. D., Zhong, J. A., & Wang, X.-Y. (2013). The impact of substitutes for leadership on job satisfaction and performance. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 41(4), 675–685.*Google Scholar
  276. Yang, C. (2006). The effect of leadership and entrepreneurial orientation of small and medium enterprises on business performance in Taiwan. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of the Incarnate Word, San Antonio, TX.*Google Scholar
  277. Yang, L. R., Wu, K. S., Wang, F. K., & Chin, P. C. (2010). Relationships among project manager‘s leadership style, team interaction and project performance in the Taiwanese server industry. Quality & Quantity, 46(1), 207–219.*Google Scholar
  278. Yeh, H., & Hong, D. (2012). The mediating effect of organizational commitment on leadership type and job performance. The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, 8(2), 50–59.*Google Scholar
  279. Young, M., & Dulewicz, V. (2006). Leadership styles, change context and leader performance in the Royal Navy. Journal of Change Management, 6(4), 383–396.*Google Scholar
  280. Yousef, D. A. (2000). Organizational commitment: A mediator of the relationships of leadership behavior with job satisfaction and performance in a non-western country. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 15(1), 6–28.*Google Scholar
  281. Yuan, C. K., & Lee, C. Y. (2011). Exploration of a construct model linking leadership types, organization culture, employees performance and leadership performance. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 25, 123–136.*Google Scholar
  282. Yukl, G. A. (1998). Leadership in organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  283. Zehir, C., Akyuz, B., Eren, M., & Turhan, G. (2013). The indirect effects of servant leadership behavior on organizational citizenship behavior and job performance: Organizational justice as a mediator. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science, 2(3), 1–13.*Google Scholar
  284. Zehir, C., & Erdogan, E. (2011). The association between organizational silence and ethical leadership through employee performance. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 24, 1389–1404.*Google Scholar
  285. Zehir, C., Ertosun, Ö. G., Zehir, S., & Müceldili, B. (2011). The effects of leadership styles and organizational culture over firm performance: Multi-national companies in İstanbul. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 24, 1460–1474.*Google Scholar
  286. Zehir, C., Müceldili, B., Zehir, S., & Ertosun, Ö. G. (2012). The mediating role of firm innovativeness on management leadership and performance relationship. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 41, 29–36.*Google Scholar
  287. Zehir, C., Sehitoglu, Y., & Erdogan, E. (2012). The effect of leadership and supervisory commitment to organizational performance. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 58, 207–216.*Google Scholar
  288. Zhou, W. (2012). Moderating effects of shared leadership on the relationship between entrepreneurial team diversity and performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The City University of New York, New York, NY.*Google Scholar
  289. Zhu, W., Chew, I. K. H., & Spangler, W. D. (2005). CEO transformational leadership & organizational outcomes: The mediating role of human-capital-enhancing human resource management. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(1), 39–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Zohar, D., Huang, Y. H., Lee, J., & Robertson, M. (2014). A mediation model linking dispatcher leadership and work ownership with safety climate as predictors of truck driver safety performance. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 62, 17–25.*Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Şahin Danişman
    • 1
  • Şule Betül Tosuntaş
    • 1
  • Engin Karadağ
    • 1
  1. 1.Eskişehir Osmangazi UniversityEskişehirTurkey

Personalised recommendations