Using the Fourth Dimension to Distinguish Between Structures for Anisotropic Diffusion Filtering in 4D CT Perfusion Scans

  • Adriënne M. Mendrik
  • Evert-jan Vonken
  • Theo Witkamp
  • Mathias Prokop
  • Bram van Ginneken
  • Max. A. Viergever
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8682)


High resolution 4D (3D+time) cerebral CT perfusion (CTP) scans can be used to create 3D arteriograms (showing only arteries) and venograms (only veins). However, due to the low X-ray radiation dose used for acquiring the CTP scans, they are inherently noisy. In this paper, we propose a time intensity profile similarity (TIPS) anisotropic diffusion method that uses the 4th dimension to distinguish between structures, for reducing noise and enhancing arteries and veins in 4D CTP scans. The method was evaluated on 20 patient CTP scans. An observer study was performed by two radiologists, assessing the arteries and veins in arteriograms and venograms derived from the filtered CTP data, compared to those derived from the original data. Results showed that arteriograms and venograms derived from the filtered CTP data showed more and better visualized small arteries and veins in the majority of the 20 evaluated CTP scans. In conclusion, arteries and veins are separately enhanced and noise is reduced by using the time-intensity profile similarity (fourth dimension) to distinguish between structures for anisotropic diffusion filtering in 4D CT perfusion scans.


Structure Tensor Fourth Dimension Diographic Image Anisotropic Hybrid Multiscale Vessel Enhancement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adriënne M. Mendrik
    • 1
  • Evert-jan Vonken
    • 2
  • Theo Witkamp
    • 2
  • Mathias Prokop
    • 3
  • Bram van Ginneken
    • 3
  • Max. A. Viergever
    • 1
  1. 1.Image Sciences InstituteUniversity Medical Center UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Radiology DepartmentUniversity Medical Center UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Radboud University Nijmegen Medical CentreNijmegenThe Netherlands

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