Advertisement

Recent Experiences from the Natural Rubber Industry and Its Movement Towards Sustainability

  • Edward MillardEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Natural Resource Management in Transition book series (NRMT, volume 2)

Abstract

Natural rubber is grown on 12 million hectares of tropical land; about the same as coffee. Yet whereas coffee was a pioneer commodity in the sustainability movement and it has become embedded in the sector, rubber has hardly progressed beyond the inception stage. The need for improved economic, social and environmental practices is as strong as in any commodity. Major companies holding concessions have been exposed for unacceptable practices towards local communities and clearing of natural forest. A large majority of producers are smallholders, whose yields are below the potential volume and quality that could be obtained with improved harvesting and processing.

References

  1. Ahrends A, Hollingsworth PM, Ziegler AD, Fox JM, Chen H, Su Y, Xu J (2015) Current trends of rubber plantation expansion may threaten biodiversity and livelihoods. Global Environ Change 34:48–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aidenvironment (2016) How prices drive natural rubber producers into poverty: an overview of sustainability issues and solutions in the rubber sector. http://www.aidenvironment.org/news/low-prices-drive-natural-rubber-producers-into-poverty/. Accessed 31 Jan 2019
  3. ANRPC – Association of Natural Rubber Producing Countries (2014) About ANRPC. http://www.anrpc.org/html/default.aspx?ID=4&PID=5. Accessed 31 Jan 2019
  4. Arunmas P (2015) Vietnam urged to join rubber consortium. Bangkok Post. https://www.bangkokpost.com/archive/vietnam-urged-to-join-rubber-consortium/623984. Accessed 31 Jan 2019
  5. BASF (2018) Latex coagulation with formic acid from BASF. http://www.intermediates.basf.com/chemicals/formic-acid/latex-coagulation. Accessed 31 Jan 2019
  6. BirdLife International (2008) State of the world’s birds: Indicators for our changing world. http://datazone.birdlife.org/userfiles/docs/SOWB2008_en.pdf. Accessed 31 Jan 2019
  7. DanWatch (2013) Behind the rubber label: social and working conditions in Asia’s rubber plantations. https://old.danwatch.dk/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Behind-the-rubber-label.pdf. Accessed 31 Jan 2019
  8. Davis B (2014) Bridgestone ranks as world’s top tire producer again. Rubber and Plastics News. http://www.rubbernews.com/article/20140908/NEWS/309089973. Accessed 31 Jan 2019
  9. ETRMA – European Tyre and Rubber Manufacturers’ Association (2017) European tyre and rubber industry statistics: Edition 2016. http://www.etrma.org/uploads/Modules/Documentsmanager/20161208%2D%2D-statistics-booklet-2016-final5.pdf. Accessed 31 Jan 2019
  10. FSC – Forest Stewardship Council (2015) Global Witness v Vietnam Rubber Group. https://ic.fsc.org/en/what-is-fsc/what-we-do/dispute-resolution/archived-cases/vietnam-rubber-group-vrg. Accessed 31 Jan 2019
  11. General Motors (2017) GM works to set sustainable natural rubber tires into motion. https://media.gm.com/media/us/en/gm/home.detail.html/content/Pages/news/us/en/2017/may/0515-tires.html. Accessed 31 Jan 2019
  12. Global Witness (2013) Rubber Barons. https://www.globalwitness.org/campaigns/land-deals/rubberbarons/. Accessed 31 Jan 2019
  13. Global Witness (2015) Guns, cronies and crops. https://www.globalwitness.org/en/campaigns/land-deals/guns-cronies-and-crops/. Accessed 31 Jan 2019
  14. Guardian Development Network (2013) Ivory Coast farmers abandon cassava for more lucrative rubber. http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2013/feb/28/ivory-coast-farmers-cassava-rubber. Accessed 31 Jan 2019
  15. HCSA – High Carbon Stock Approach (2018) The High Carbon Stock Approach. http://highcarbonstock.org/the-high-carbon-stock-approach/. Accessed 31 Jan 2019
  16. HCV Resource Network – High Conservation Value Resource Network (2018) How it works: we protect what matters the most. https://hcvnetwork.org/how-it-works/. Accessed 31 Jan 2019
  17. International Finance Corporation (2012) Performance Standards: 2012 Edition. http://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/Topics_Ext_Content/IFC_External_Corporate_Site/Sustainability-At-IFC/Policies-Standards/Performance-Standards. Accessed 31 Jan 2019
  18. IRSG – International Rubber Study Group (2016a) Opening presentation to Focus Forum on Sustainability, held in Singapore, 10th May 2016Google Scholar
  19. IRSG – International Rubber Study Group (2016b) World Rubber Industry Outlook. http://www.rubberstudy.com/news-article.aspx?id=5106&b=default.aspx. Accessed 31 Jan 2019
  20. Ives M (2013) The rise of rubber takes toll on forests of Southwest China. https://e360.yale.edu/features/the_rise_of_rubber_takes_toll_on_forests_of_southwest_china/. Accessed 31 Jan 2019
  21. Kose O, Veillard X, Harneja A (2014) Extracting value from natural rubber trading markets: optimizing marketing, procurement and hedging for producers and customers. Accenture. https://www.accenture.com/t20150523T032721__w__/sg-en/_acnmedia/Accenture/Conversion-Assets/DotCom/Documents/Global/PDF/Dualpub_6/Accenture-ATIOS-Publication-Natural-Rubber-Trading-Markets.pdf. Accessed 31 Jan 2019
  22. Michelin (2015) Joint-venture to produce natural, eco-friendly rubber. https://www.michelin.com/en/press-releases/joint-venture-to-produce-natural-eco-friendly-rubber/. Accessed 31 Jan 2019
  23. Michelin (2016) Sustainable natural rubber policy: reference document, 2016 Edition. http://michelinmedia.com/site/user/files/1/SUSTAINABLE-NATURAL-RUBBER-POLICY_VD.pdf. Accessed 31 Jan 2019
  24. Michelin (2018a) Highlights: 2017 annual results. https://www.michelin.com/en/finance/regulated-information/annual-results/. Accessed 31 Jan 2019
  25. Michelin (2018b) The tire digest: materials. http://thetiredigest.michelin.com/an-unknown-object-the-tire-materials. Accessed 31 Jan 2019
  26. Olam International (2018) Rubber: sustainability. http://olamgroup.com/products-services/industrial-raw-materials/rubber/sustainability/. Accessed 31 Jan 2019
  27. Peramune MR, Budiman AFS (2007) A value chain assessment of the rubber industry in Indonesia. United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Jakarta. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnadl492.pdf. Accessed 31 Jan 2019Google Scholar
  28. Research in China (2017) Global and China Natural Rubber Industry Report, 2017–2021. Report ID: 4126832. https://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/4376309/global-and-china-natural-rubber-industry-report. Accessed 31 Jan 2019
  29. Ruf F (2015) Diversification of Cocoa Farms in Côte d’Ivoire: complementarity of and competition from rubber rent. In: Ruf F, Schroth G (eds) Economics and ecology of diversification: the case of Tropical Tree Crops. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 41–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. UN – United Nations (2015) Transforming our World: the 2030 agenda for sustainable development. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 25 September 2015, A/RES/70/1Google Scholar
  31. Union of Concerned Scientists (2016) What’s driving deforestation? https://www.ucsusa.org/global-warming/stop-deforestation/whats-driving-deforestation. Accessed 31 Jan 2019
  32. Warren-Thomas E, Dolman PM, Edwards DP (2015) Increasing demand for natural rubber necessitates a robust sustainability initiative to mitigate impacts on tropical biodiversity. Conserv Lett 8(4):230–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. World Cocoa Foundation (2017) Cocoa & Forests initiative. http://www.worldcocoafoundation.org/cocoa-forests-initiative/. Accessed 31 Jan 2019
  34. WWF and RSPB (2017) Risky business: understanding the UK’s overseas footprint for deforestation-risk commodities. https://www.wwf.org.uk/riskybusiness. Accessed 31 Jan 2019

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rainforest AllianceLondonUK

Personalised recommendations