Advertisement

Quantitative Methods in Pharmacy Practice Research

  • James A. Green
  • Pauline Norris

Abstract

Quantitative research methods in pharmacy practice complement qualitative research methods by providing estimates of frequency, commonness and size. Researchers use existing data or collect their own via observation or self-report. Challenges facing the use of quantitative methods include increasing levels of non-response and dealing with social desirability effects. We finish with a brief outline of how to start a quantitative research project.

Keywords

Quantitative Research Implicit Association Test Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Implicit Attitude Pharmacy Practice 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abushanab AS, Sweileh WM, Wazaify M (2013) Storage and wastage of drug products in Jordanian households: a cross-sectional survey. Int J Pharm Pract 21(3):185–191. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-7174.2012.00250.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Acquaviva E, Legleye S, Auleley G, Deligne J, Carel D, Falissard B (2009) Psychotropic medication in the French child and adolescent population: prevalence estimation from health insurance data and national self-report survey data. BMC Psychiatry 9(72). doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-9-72
  3. Action Programme on Essential Drugs (1993) WHO/DAP/93.1 How to investigate drug use in health facilities: selected drug use indicatorsGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson C, Thornley T (2014) “It’s easier in pharmacy”: why some patients prefer to pay for flu jabs rather than use the National Health Service. BMC Health Serv Res 14:35. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-14-35 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Anseel F, Lievens F, Schollaert E, Choragwicka B (2010) Response rates in organizational science, 1995-2008: a meta-analytic review and guidelines for survey researchers. J Bus Psychol 25(3):335–349. doi: 10.1007/s10869-010-9157-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brunel FF, Tietje BC, Greenwald AG (2004) Is the implicit association test a valid and valuable measure of implicit consumer social cognition? J Consum Psychol 14(4):385–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cameron A, Ewen M, Ross-Degnan D, Ball D, Laing R (2009) Medicine prices, availability, and affordability in 36 developing and middle-income countries: a secondary analysis. Lancet 373(9659):240–249. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61762-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Chalker J, Chuc NTK, Falkenberg T, Do NT, Tomson G (2000) STD management by private pharmacies in Hanoi: practice and knowledge of drug sellers. Sex Transm Infect 76(4):299–302. doi: 10.1136/sti.76.4.299 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Conner MT, Perugini M, O’Gorman R, Ayres K, Prestwich A (2007) Relations between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes and measures of behavior: evidence of moderation by individual difference variables. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 33(12):1727–1740. doi: 10.1177/0146167207309194 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Dailey G, Kim MS, Lian JF (2001) Patient compliance and persistence with antihyperglycemic drug regimens: evaluation of a medicaid patient population with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clin Ther 23(8):1311–1320. doi: 10.1016/S0149-2918(01)80110-7 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Daw JR, Mintzes B, Law MR, Hanley GE, Morgan SG (2012) Prescription drug use in pregnancy: a retrospective, population-based study in British Columbia, Canada (2001–2006). Clin Ther 34(1):239–249. doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2011.11.025, e232CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Department of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy (2007) WHO Operational package for assessing, monitoring and evaluating country pharmaceutical situations: guide for coordinators and data collectors. World Health Organisation. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/69927
  13. Dhalla IA, Mamdani MM, Gomes T, Juurlink DN (2011) Clustering of opioid prescribing and opioid-related mortality among family physicians in Ontario. Can Fam Phys 57(3):e92–e96Google Scholar
  14. Dillman DA (2002) Presidential address: Navigating the rapids of change: some observations on survey methodology in the early twenty-first century. Public Opin Q 66(3):473–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Driesen A, Vandenplas Y (2009) How do pharmacists manage acute diarrhoea in an 8-month-old baby? A simulated client study. Int J Pharm Pract 17(4):215–220. doi: 10.1211/ijpp.17.04.0004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. El-Dahiyat F, Kayyali R (2013) Evaluating patients’ perceptions regarding generic medicines in Jordan. J Pharm Policy Pract 6(1):3. doi: 10.1186/2052-3211-6-3 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Fick DM, Waller JL, Maclean JR, Heuvel RV, Tadlock J, Gottlieb M, Cangialose CB (2001) Potentially inappropriate medication use in a Medicare managed care population: association with higher costs and utilization. J Manage Care Pharm 7(5):407–413Google Scholar
  18. Foster PD, Mamdani MM, Juurlink DN, Shah BR, Paterson JM, Gomes T (2013) Trends in selection and timing of first-line pharmacotherapy in older patients with Type 2 diabetes diagnosed between 1994 and 2006. Diabet Med 30(10):1209–1213. doi: 10.1111/dme.12214 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Galea S, Tracy M (2007) Participation rates in epidemiologic studies. Ann Epidemiol 17(9):643–653. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2007.03.013 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Gibson PJ, Damler R, Jackson EA, Wilder T, Ramsey JL (2004) The impact of olanzapine, risperidone, or haloperidol on the cost of schizophrenia care in a medicaid population. Value Health 7(1):22–35. doi: 10.1111/j.1524-4733.2004.71272.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Green JA, Brown K, Burgess J, Chong D, Pewhairangi K (2013) Indigenous and immigrant populations’ use and experience of community pharmacies in New Zealand. J Immigr Minor Health 15(1):78–84. doi: 10.1007/s10903-012-9572-z CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Green JA, Hohmann C, Lister K, Albertyn R, Bradshaw R, Johnson C (2014) Implicit and explicit attitudes towards conventional and complementary and alternative medicine treatments: introduction of an implicit association test. J Health Psychol doi:I0.I I77/I359IO53I45428I8Google Scholar
  23. Grijalva CG, Chung CP, Stein CM, Mitchel EF, Griffin MR (2008) Changing patterns of medication use in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in a Medicaid population. Rheumatology 47(7):1061–1064. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/ken193 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Groves RM, Peytcheva E (2008) The impact of nonresponse rates on nonresponse bias: a meta-analysis. Public Opin Q 72(2):167–189. doi: 10.1093/poq/nfn011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Halberstadt J, Green J (2008) Carryover effects of analytic thought on preference quality. J Exp Soc Psychol 44(4):1199–1203. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2008.03.008
  26. Hardon A, Hodgkin C, Fresle D (2004) How to investigate the use of medicines by consumers. World Health Organisation, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  27. Henderson E, McNab E, Sarten R, Wallace E (2014) Pharmacist satisfaction with trimethoprim training and the impact on clinical practice. University of Otago, DunedinGoogle Scholar
  28. Holloway KA, Henry D (2014) WHO essential medicines policies and use in developing and transitional countries: an analysis of reported policy implementation and medicines use surveys. PLoS Med 11(9). doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001724
  29. Horsburgh S, Norris P, Becket G, Crampton P, Arroll B, Cumming J, Herbison P, Sides G (2010) The equity in prescriptions medicines use study: using community pharmacy databases to study medicines utilisation. J Biomed Inform 43(6):982–987. doi: 10.1016/j.jbi.2010.08.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Hsieh S-C, Lin I-H, Tseng W-L, Lee C-H, Wang J-D (2008) Prescription profile of potentially aristolochic acid containing Chinese herbal products: an analysis of National Health Insurance data in Taiwan between 1997 and 2003. Chin Med 3:13. doi: 10.1186/1749-8546-3-13 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Hynd A, Roughead EE, Preen DB, Glover J, Bulsara M, Semmens J (2008) The impact of co-payment increases on dispensings of government-subsidised medicines in Australia. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 17(11):1091–1099. doi: 10.1002/pds.1670 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Johnell K, Fastbom J, Rosén M, Leimanis A (2007) Inappropriate drug use in the elderly: a nationwide register-based study. Ann Pharmacother 41(7-8):1243–1248. doi: 10.1345/aph.1K154 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Johnson T, Owens L (2003) Survey response rate reporting in the professional literature. In: 58th Annual meeting of the American Association for Public Opinion Research, Nashville, TNGoogle Scholar
  34. Kohut A, Keeter S, Doherty C, Dimock M, Christian L (2012) Assessing the representativeness of public opinion surveys. Pew Research Center, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  35. Kooiker SE (1995) Exploring the iceberg of morbidity - a comparison of different survey methods for assessing the occurrence of everyday illness. Soc Sci Med 41(3):317–332CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Krass I, Costa D, Dhippayom T (2014) Development and validation of the Attitudes to Pharmacist Services for Diabetes Scale (APSDS). Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy. doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2014.04.005
  37. Krosnick JA, Presser S (2010) Question and questionnaire design. In Handbook of Survey Research (2nd Ed.). West Yorkshire, England: Emerald, (pp 263–314)Google Scholar
  38. Madden J, Quick J, Ross-Degnan D, Kafle K (1997) Undercover careseekers: simulated clients in the study of health provider behavin developing countries. Soc Sci Med 45(10):1465–1482CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Malm H, Klaukka T, Neuvonen PJ (2005) Risks associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 106(6):1289–1296. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000187302.61812.53 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Marcus AC (1982) Memory aids in longitudinal health surveys - results from a field experiment. Am J Public Health 72(6):567–573CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Morrato EH, Dodd S, Oderda G, Haxby DG, Allen R, Valuck RJ (2007) Prevalence, utilization patterns, and predictors of antipsychotic polypharmacy: experience in a multistate Medicaid Population, 1998–2003. Clin Ther 29(1):183–195. doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2007.01.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Neoh CF, Hassali MA, Shafie AA, Awaisu A (2011) Nature and adequacy of information on dispensed medications delivered to patients in community pharmacies: a pilot study from Penang, Malaysia. J Pharm Health Serv Res 2(1):41–46. doi: 10.1111/j.1759-8893.2010.00026.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nisbett RE, Wilson TD (1977) Telling more than we can know - verbal reports on mental processes. Psychol Rev 84(3):231–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Norris PT (2002) Purchasing restricted medicines in New Zealand pharmacies: results from a “mystery shopper” study. Pharm World Sci 24(4):149–153CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Norris P, Simpson T, Bird K, Kirifi J (2001) Understanding of pharmacy-related terms among three ethnic groups in New Zealand. Int J Pharm Pract 9(4):269–274. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-7174.2001.tb01058.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Norris P, Funke S, Becket G, Ecke D, Reiter L, Herbison P (2006) How many antibiotic prescriptions are unsubsidized? NZ Med J 119(1233):5Google Scholar
  47. Olson MA, Fazio RH (2009) Implicit and explicit measures of attitudes: The perspective of the MODE model. In: Petty RE, Fazio RH, Brinol P (eds) Attitudes: insights from the new implicit measures. Pyschology Press, New York, pp 19–63Google Scholar
  48. Piszczek J, Mamdani M, Antoniou T, Juurlink D, Gomes T (2014) The impact of drug reimbursement policy on rates of testosterone replacement therapy among older men. PLoS One 9(7):1–6. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ragupathy R, Aaltonen K, Tordoff J, Norris P, Reith D (2012) A 3-dimensional view of access to licensed and subsidized medicines under single-payer systems in the US, the UK, Australia and New Zealand. PharmacoEconomics 30(11):1051–1065. doi: 10.2165/11595270-000000000-00000 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Reis HT, Gable SL (2000) Event-sampling and other methods for studying everyday experience. In: Reis HT, Judd MC (eds) Handbook of research methods in social and personality psychology. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 190–222Google Scholar
  51. Ringborg A, Martinell M, Stålhammar J, Yin DD, Lindgren P (2008) Resource use and costs of type 2 diabetes in Sweden – estimates from population-based register data. Int J Clin Pract 62(5):708–716. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-1241.2008.01716.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Rodrigues AM, O’Brien N, French DP, Glidewell L, Sniehotta FF (2014) The question-behavior effect: genuine effect or spurious phenomenon? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials with meta-analyses. Health Psychol. doi: 10.1037/hea0000104
  53. Rohra DK, Gilani AH, Memon IK, Perven G, Khan MT, Zafar H, Kumar R (2006) Critical evaluation of the claims made by pharmaceutical companies in drug promotional material in Pakistan. J Pharm Pharm Sci 9(1):50–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Shih TH, Xitao F (2008) Comparing response rates from web and mail surveys: a meta-analysis. Field Methods 20(3):249–271. doi: 10.1177/1525822X08317085 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Stewart D, John D, Cunningham S, McCaig D, Hansford D (2007) A comparison of community pharmacists’ views of over-the-counter omeprazole and simvastatin. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 16(12):1290–1297. doi: 10.1002/pds.1481 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. VanGeest JB, Johnson TP, Welch VL (2007) Methodologies for improving response rates in surveys of physicians: a systematic review. Eval Health Prof 30(4):303–321. doi: 10.1177/0163278707307899 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Ververs T, Kaasenbrood H, Visser G, Schobben F, de Jong-van den Berg L, Egberts T (2006) Prevalence and patterns of antidepressant drug use during pregnancy. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 62(10):863–870. doi: 10.1007/s00228-006-0177-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Watson M, Norris P, Granas A (2006) A systematic review of the use of simulated patients and pharmacy practice research. Int J Pharm Pract 14(2):83–93. doi: 10.1211/ijpp.14.2.0002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Westrick SC, Mount JK (2007) Evaluating telephone follow-up of a mail survey of community pharmacies. Res Soc Admin Pharm 3(2):160–182. doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2006.06.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wilson TD, Schooler JW (1991) Thinking too much: introspection can reduce the quality of preferences and decisions. J Pers Soc Psychol 60(2):181CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Yin W, Basu A, Zhang JX, Rabbani A, Meltzer DO, Alexander GC (2008) The effect of the medicare. Part D: Prescription benefit on drug utilization and expenditures. Ann Intern Med 148(3):169–177. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-148-3-200802050-00200 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Pharmacy, Te Kura Mātauraka Wai-whakaoraUniversity of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations