The femoral nerve arises from the posterior division of the ventral rami of L2–L4. It forms within the psoas muscle and exits lateral to the muscle supplying it and the iliacus muscle. It courses in the retroperitoneum and then enters the thigh below the inguinal ligament with the corresponding vessels. The vein (V) is most medial, then the artery (A), and then the nerve (N) (VAN), respectively. The femoral nerve proper has a short course. It divides into multiple muscular branches to the quadriceps femoris and sartorius , medial and intermediate cutaneous nerves of the thigh, as well as the saphenous nerve . The saphenous nerve courses along the femoral artery in the adductor canal and then along the long saphenous vein on the medial aspect of the leg.
(MP4 1158504 kb)