Advertisement

Study of 2D Vibration Summing for Improved Intensity Control in Vibrotactile Array Rendering

  • Nicholas G. Lipari
  • Christoph W. Borst
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8888)

Abstract

2D tactile arrays may be integrated into handheld devices or VR controllers to enhance user experience, for example, with touch communication for collaborative tasks. Multiple tactors (tactile elements) may be activated in combination to approximate a vibration point (virtual tactor) having arbitrary position and intensity. We studied the combination of intensities from multiple tactors to guide virtual tactor rendering approaches. Subjects matched perceived loudness of multi-tactor vibrations to a reference tactor. The multi-tactor vibrations corresponded to overall perceived positions halfway between tactor pairs and in the center of a 2D 4-tactor group. Results inform the relationship between tactor signal level and perceived loudness at these critical positions. The relationship leads us to propose a nonlinear 2D rendering approach, provides a basis for assessment of existing rendering techniques, and lays a foundation for further study of 2D array rendering.

Keywords

Reference Intensity Adjustment Intensity Social Touch Tactile Array Collaborative Augmented Reality 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Yang, G.-H., Jin, Y., Jin, M.-S., Kang, S.: Vibrotactile Cradle for Smart Cell-phone Providing Spatial and Directional Cues. In: International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics, Phuket, Thailand (2011)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yatani, K., Gergle, D., Truong, K.N.: Investigating Effects of Visual and Tactile Feedback on Spatial Coordination in Collaborative Handheld Systems. In: ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW 2012), Seattle, WA (2012)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ryu, D., Yang, G.-H., Kang, S.: T-hive: Vibrotactile Interface Presenting Spatial Information on Handle Surface. In: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Kobe, Japan (2009)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Seo, J., Choi, S.: Initial study for creating linearly moving vibrotactile sensation on mobile devices. In: IEEE Haptics Symposium, Waltham, MA (2010)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yang, G.-H., Ryu, D., Kang, S.: Vibrotactile Display for Hand-held Input Device Providing Spatial and Directional Information. In: WorldHaptics, Salt Lake City, UT, USA (2009)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Borst, C.W., Cavanaugh, C.D.: Touchpad-Driven Haptic Communication using a Palm-Sized Vibrotactile Array with an Open-Hardware Controller Design. In: Eurohaptics, Munich, Germany (2004)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brave, S., Dahley, A.: inTouch: a medium for haptic interpersonal communication. In: SIGCHI, Atlanta, GA, USA (1997)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rantala, J., Salminen, K., Raisamo, R., Surakka, V.: Touch Gestures in Communicating Emotional Intention via Vibrotactile Stimulation. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 71(6), 679–690 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Haans, A., IJsselsteijn, W.: Mediated social touch: a review of current research and future directions. Virtual Reality 9(2), 149–159 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Huisman, G., Darriba Frederiks, A., van Dijk, E., Heylen, D., Kröse, B.: The TaSST – Tactile Sleeve for Social Touch. In: World Haptics Conference, Daejon, Korea (2013)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Israr, A., Poupyrev, I.: Tactile brush: Drawing on skin with a tactile grid display. In: SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, New York, NY (2011)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Oakley, I., Kim, Y., Lee, J., Ryu, J.: Determining the feasibility of forearm mounted vibrotactile displays. In: Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, Arlington, VA, USA (2006)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rahal, L., Cha, J., El Saddik, A., Kammerl, J., Steinbach, E.: Investigating the influence of temporal intensity changes on apparent movement phenomenon. In: International Conference on Virtual Environments, Human-Computer Interfaces and Measurement Systems, Hong Kong, China (2009)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Alles, D.S.: Information Transmission by Phantom Sensations. IEEE Transactions on Man-Machine Systems 11(1), 85–91 (1970)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sherrick, C.E.: Effects of Double Simultaneous Stimulation of the Skin. American Journal of Psychology 77(1), 42–53 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    von Békésy, G.: Funneling in the Nervous System and its Role in Loudness and Sensation Intensity on the Skin. Journal of The Acoustical Society of America 30(5), 399–412 (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gescheider, G.A.: Information-processing channels in the tactile sensory system: a psychophysical and physiological analysis. Psychology Press, New York (2009)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sherrick, C., Rogers, R.: Apparent Haptic Movement. Perception and Psychophysics 1(6), 175–180 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cha, J., Rahal, L., El Saddik, A.: A Pilot Study on Simulating Continuous Sensation with Two Vibrating Motors. In: IEEE International Workshop on Haptic Audio Visual Environments and their Applications, Ottawa, Canada (2008)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Borst, C.W., Asutay, A.: Bi-level and Anti-aliased Rendering Methods for a Low-Resolution 2D Vibrotactile Array. In: IEEE WorldHaptics, Pisa, Italy (2005)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Borst, C.W., Baiyya, V.B.: A 2D Haptic Glyph Method for Tactile Arrays: Design and Evaluation. In: Worldhaptics (2009)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Borst, C.W., Baiyya, V.B.: Enhancing VR-based Visualization with a 2D Vibrotactile Array. In: ACM Virtual Reality Software and Technology (VRST), Newport Beach, CA, USA (2007)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gescheider, G.: The classical psychophysical methods. In: Psychophysics: The Fundamentals, pp. 45–72. Psychology Press, Nahwah (2009)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Engineering Acoustics Inc., ATAC Tactors (August 15, 2014) , http://www.atactech.com

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicholas G. Lipari
    • 1
  • Christoph W. Borst
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Louisiana at LafayetteUSA

Personalised recommendations