Self-management of Live Streaming Application in Distributed Cloud Infrastructure

  • Patricia EndoEmail author
  • Marcelo Santos
  • Jônatas Vitalino
  • Glauco Gonçalves
  • Moisés Rodrigues
  • Djamel F. H. Sadok
  • Judith Kelner
  • Azimeh Sefidcon
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8907)


Currently, live streaming traffic is responsible for more than half of aggregated traffic from fixed access networks in North America. But, due to traffic redundancy, it does not suitably utilize bandwidth and network resources. To cope with this problem in the context of Distributed Clouds (DClouds) we present RBSA4LS, an autonomic strategy that manages the dynamic creation of reflectors for reducing redundant traffic in live streaming applications. Under this strategy, nodes continually assess the utilization level by live streaming flows. When necessary, the network nodes communicate and self-appoint a new reflector node, which switches to multicasting video flows hence alleviating network links. We evaluated RBSA4LS through extensive simulations and the results showed that such a simple strategy can provide as much as 40 % of reduction in redundant traffic even for random topologies and reaches 85 % of bandwidth gain in a scenario with a large ISP topology.


Cloud computing Self-management Live streaming Simulation 


  1. 1.
  2. 2.
    Michel, K.: Live Video Streaming that Can Handle Traffic Spikes - The Challenge. Accessed Jan 2014
  3. 3.
    Zhuang, Z., Guo, C.: Optimizing CDN infrastructure for live streaming with constrained server chaining. In: IEEE ISPA (2011)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rajkumar, K., Swaminathan, P.: Eliminating redundant link traffic for live multimedia data over distributed system. Int. J. Eng. Technol. 5, 1202–1206 (2013)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nygren, E., Sitaraman, K., Jennifer, S.: The akamai network: a platform for high-performance internet applications. In: ACM Operating Systems Review (SIGOPS), pp. 2–19 (2010)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gonçalves, G., Endo, P.T., Palhares, A., Santos, M., Kelner, J., Sadok. D.: On the load balancing of virtual networks in distributed clouds. In: ACM SAC, pp. 625–631 (2012)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Church, K., Greenbreg, A., Hamilton, J.: On delivering embarrassingly distributed cloud services. In: Seventh Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (HotNets), Citeseer (2008)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Alicherry, M., Lakshman, T.V.: Network aware resource allocation in distributed clouds. In: IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 963–971 (2012)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Endo, P.T., Palhares, A.V.A., Pereira, N.N., Gonçalves, G.E., Sadok, D., Kelner, J., Melander, B., Mangs, J.E.: Resource allocation for distributed cloud: concepts and research challenges. IEEE Netw. Mag. 25, 42–46 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Valancius, V., Laoutaris, N., Massoulie, L., Diot, C., Rodriguez, P.: Greening the internet with nano data centers. In: International Conference on Emerging Networking Experiments and Technologies, pp. 37–48 (2009)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Endo, P., Palhares, A., Santos, M., Gonçalves, G., Sadok, D., Kelner, J., Sefidcon, A., Fetahi, W.: Role-based self-appointment for autonomic management of resources. In: IEEE NetMM (2014)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lewis, T.G.: Network Science: Theory and Applications. Wiley, New York (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sharma, P., Perry, E., Malpani, R.: IP multicast operational network management: design, challenges, and experiences. IEEE Netw. 17, 49–55 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cisco Systems, IP Multicast Deployment Fundamentals, Design Implementation Guide (1999). Accessed May 2013
  15. 15.
    Handley, M., Crowcroft, J.: Internet multicast today. Internet Protoc. J. 2(4), 2–19 (1999)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    LI, B., Wang, Z., Liu, J., Zhu, W.: Two decades of internet video streaming: a retrospective view. ACM Trans. Multimedia Comput. Commun. Appl. 2(4), 2–19 (2013)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patricia Endo
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Marcelo Santos
    • 1
  • Jônatas Vitalino
    • 1
  • Glauco Gonçalves
    • 3
  • Moisés Rodrigues
    • 1
  • Djamel F. H. Sadok
    • 1
  • Judith Kelner
    • 1
  • Azimeh Sefidcon
    • 4
  1. 1.Federal University of PernambucoRecifeBrazil
  2. 2.University of PernambucoCaruaruBrazil
  3. 3.Federal Rural University of PernambucoRecifeBrazil
  4. 4.Ericsson ResearchKistaSweden

Personalised recommendations