Three-way Indexing ZDDs for Large-Scale Sparse Datasets

  • Hiroshi Aoki
  • Takahisa Toda
  • Shin-ichi Minato
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8643)


Zero-suppressed decision diagrams (ZDDs) are a data structure for representing combinations over item sets. They have been applied to many areas such as data mining. When ZDDs represent large-scale sparse datasets, they tend to obtain an unbalanced form, which results performance degradation. In this paper, we propose a new data structure three-way indexing ZDD, as a variant of ZDDs. We furthermore present algorithms to convert between three-way indexing ZDDs and ordinary ZDDs. Experimental results show the effectiveness of our data structure and algorithms.


ZDD Zero-suppressed binary decision diagram Ternary search tree Membership query 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hiroshi Aoki
    • 1
  • Takahisa Toda
    • 2
  • Shin-ichi Minato
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Graduate School of Information Science and TechnologyHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of Information SystemsUniversity of Electro-CommunicationsChofuJapan
  3. 3.ERATO MINATO Discrete Structure Manipulation System ProjectJapan Science and Technology Agency, Hokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

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