An Assessment of Gender Sensitive Adaptation Options to Climate Change in Smallholder Areas of Zimbabwe, Using Climate Analogue Analysis
- 1.7k Downloads
Climate analogues can be used to assess climate–induced risks and adaptation options for smallholder farmers. Surveys were carried out in smallholder areas at two 2050s climate analogue sites to assess smallholder climate-induced risks, farmers’ perceptions, and adaptation options, with a gender perspective. Pairs of sites selected had similar annual rainfall totals but differed in mean annual temperature by 2–4 °C. For drier areas Chiredzi was hypothesised to represent Matobo, and for wetter areas Kadoma was hypothesized to represent Mazowe/Goromonzi 2050s climates. Differences in crop management strategies and gender issues vary across sites. At the drier analogue pair, higher proportions of households grew small grains in Chiredzi compared to Matobo. Implications are for increased uptake of small grains, in 2050s climates for Matobo farmers. Gender issues include labour for production and processing of the small grains, against a background of male labour migration. For wetter climates, soil and water management strategies are important options for smallholders. Accesses to draft power, labour, agricultural assets, social and financial capital in differently managed households are important for increasing adoption of effective crop management strategies.
KeywordsAdaptation Analogues Climate-induced risks Farming systems Gender
We would like to acknowledge the Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) on behalf of the Federal Republic of Germany who sponsored this study through the “Adapting agriculture to climate change: developing promising strategies using analogue locations in Eastern and Southern Africa”(CALESA—Climate Analogue Locations in Eastern and Southern Africa) Project, ICRISAT—Bulawayo, Zimbabwe for facilitating the field work, the Zimbabwe Meteorological Services Department for providing meteorological data.
- Chimhowu A, Bare T, Chiripanhura B, Chitekwe-Biti B, Chung F, Magure T, Mambondiyani L, Manjengwa J, Matshe I, Munemo N, Mtisi S, Nxele M, Sibanda DM (2009) Moving forward in Zimbabwe—reducing poverty and promoting growth. The University of Manchester Brooks World Poverty InstituteGoogle Scholar
- Christensen JH, Hewitson B, Busuioc A, Chen A, Gao X, Held I, Jones R, Kolli RK, Kwon WT, Laprise R, Magaña Rueda V, Mearns L, Menéndez CG, Räisänen J, Rinke A, Sarr A, Whetton P (2007) Regional climate projections. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Miller MTHL (eds) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis, contribution of working group i to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 896–901Google Scholar
- Food and Agricultural Organization/World Food Program (FAO/WFP) (2008) Special report crop and food supply assessment mission to Zimbabwe. Available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/ai469e/ai469e00.htm. Accessed 19 June 2012
- Food and Agricultural Organization/World Food Program (FAO/WFP) (2010) Crop and food security assessment mission to Zimbabwe. Available at http://www.polity.org.za/article/faowfp-crop-and-food-security-assessment-mission-to-zimbabwe-august-2010-2010-08-11. Accessed 19 June 2011
- Kurukulasuriya P, Mendelsohn R (2008) Crop switching as a strategy for adapting to climate change. Afr J Agric Resource Econ 2:105–125Google Scholar
- Matarira CH, Makadho JM, Mwamuka FC (1995) Zimbabwe: climate change impacts on maize production and adaptive measures for the agricultural sector. In: Ramos-Mane C, Benioff R (eds) Interim report on climate change country studies. US Country Studies Program, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Ministry of Agriculture (2007) Agricultural statistical bulletin. Government of ZimbabweGoogle Scholar
- Ministry of Agriculture (2012) Mechanization and irrigation development. Second round crop and livestock assessment report. Government of Zimbabwe, ZimbabweGoogle Scholar
- Nabikolo D, Bashaasha B, Mangheni MN, Majaliwa JGM (2012) Determinants of climate change adaptation among male and female headed farm households in Eastern Uganda. African Crop Sci J 20(2):203–212Google Scholar
- Tazeze A, Haji J, Ketema M (2012) Climate change adaptation strategies of smallholder farmers: the case of Babilie district, East Harerghe zone of Oromia regional state of Ethiopia. J Econ Sustain Dev 3:13–14Google Scholar
- Tiruneh A, Tesfaye T, Mwangi W, Verkuijl H (2001) Gender differentials in agricultural production and decision-making among smallholders in Ada, Lume and Gimbichu Woredas of the central highlands of Ethiopia. International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) and Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization (EARO), El Baton, MexicoGoogle Scholar