Atrioventricular Septal Defect (Intermediate Form)

  • Hakimeh Sadeghian
  • Zahra Savand-Roomi


A 17-year-old girl presented with dyspnea on exertion (functional class II) since childhood. Physical examination revealed a harsh holosystolic murmur at the left sternal border and apex. Electrocardiography showed normal sinus rhythm and left axis deviation.

Supplementary material

Video 19.1

(MP4 10539 kb)


  1. 7.
    Baumgartner H, Bonhoeffer P, De Groot NM, de Haan F, Deanfield JE, Galie N, et al. ESC guidelines for the management of grown-up congenital heart disease (new version 2010). Eur Heart J. 2010;31(23):2915–57 [Practice Guideline].CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 52.
    Cetta F, Minich L, Maleszewsky JJ, Dearani JJ, Burkhart HM. Atrioventricular septal defect. In: Allen HA, Driscoll D, Shaddy RE, Feltes TF, editors. Moss and Adams’ heart disease in infants, children, and adolescents. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013. p. 691–712.Google Scholar
  3. 53.
    Yaman ME, Edwards W, Cetta F. Atrioventricular septal defect. In: Eidem BJ, Cetta F, O’Leary PW, editors. Echocardiography in pediatric and adult congenital heart disease. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010. p. 105–15.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hakimeh Sadeghian
    • 1
  • Zahra Savand-Roomi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of EchocardiographyTehran University of Medical Sciences Tehran Heart CentreTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of EchocardiographyKowsar HospitalShirazIran

Personalised recommendations