Simulation of Catheters and Guidewires for Cardiovascular Interventions Using an Inextensible Cosserat Rod
Effective and safe performance of cardiovascular interventions requires excellent catheter / guidewire manipulation skills. These skills are mainly gained through an apprenticeship on real patients, which may not be safe or cost-effective. Computer simulation offers an alternative for core skills training. However, replicating the physical behaviour of real instruments navigated through blood vessels is a challenging task.
We use an inextensible Cosserat rod and impulse-based techniques to model virtual catheters and guidewires. This allows an efficient recreation of bending, stretching and twisting phenomena of the material in real-time. It also guarantees an immediate response to user manipulations even for long instruments. The mechanical parameters of six guidewires and three catheters were optimized with respect to their real counterparts scanned in a silicone phantom using CT.
The validation results show near sub-millimetre accuracy with an average distance error between the trajectories of the simulated and scanned instruments of 1.34mm (standard deviation: 0.95mm, RMS: 1.66mm). Our implementation requires just 0.2ms per time step to process 200 Cosserat elements on an off-the-shelf laptop, enabling simulation of 40cm long instruments at 4 kHz, thus significantly exceeding the minimum required haptic interactive rate (1 kHz).
KeywordsCatheter Guidewire Cosserat Rod Medical Simulator
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.WHO, Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2011: GenevaGoogle Scholar
- 4.Gould, D.A., et al.: Simulation devices in interventional radiology: validation pending. J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 20(7 suppl.), S324–S325 (2009)Google Scholar
- 5.Wang, F., et al.: A computer-based real-time simulation of interventional radiology. In: Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc., vol. 2007, pp. 1742–1745 (2007)Google Scholar
- 7.Duriez, C., et al.: New approaches to catheter navigation for interventional radiology simulation. Comput. Aided Surg. 11(6), 300–308 (2006)Google Scholar
- 8.Alderliesten, T., et al.: Modeling friction, intrinsic curvature, and rotation of guide wires for simulation of minimally invasive vascular interventions. IEEE TBME 54(1), 29–38 (2007)Google Scholar
- 10.Antman, S.: Nonlinear Problems of Elasticity. Springer (1995)Google Scholar
- 12.Spillmann, J., Teschner, M.: CORDE: Cosserat Rod Elements for the Dynamic Simulation of One-Dimensional Elastic Objects. In: Symposium on Comp Animation 2007: ACM Siggraph/ Eurographics Symposium Proceedings, pp. 63–72 (2007)Google Scholar
- 14.Duratti, L., et al.: A Real-Time Simulator for Interventional Radiology. In: VRST 2008 Proceedings of the 2008 ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (2008)Google Scholar
- 16.Bergou, M., et al.: Discrete elastic rods. ACM Transactions on Graphics 27(3) (2008)Google Scholar
- 17.Spillmann, J.: CORDE: Cosserat Rod Elements for the Animation of Interacting Elastic Rods PhD Thesis (2008)Google Scholar
- 18.Chipperfield, A., et al.: Genetic Algorithm TOOLBOX For Use with MATLAB (1994)Google Scholar