Advertisement

A Pattern-Based Tool for Creating Virtual Cinematography in Interactive Storytelling

  • Pei-Chun Lai
  • Hui-Yin Wu
  • Cunka Sanokho
  • Marc Christie
  • Tsai-Yen Li
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8698)

Abstract

In this work we design a tool for creators of interactive stories to explore the effect of applying camera patterns to achieve high level communicative goals in a 3D animated scenario. We design a pattern language to specify high level communicative goals that are translated into simple or complex camera techniques and transitions, and then flexibly applied over a sequence of character actions. These patterns are linked to a real-movie shot specification database through elements of context such as characters, objects, actions, and emotions. The use of real movies provides rich context information of the film, and allows the users of our tool to replicate the feel and emotion of existing film segments. The story context, pattern language and database are linked through a decision process that we call the virtual director, who reasons on a given story context and communicative goals, translates them into the camera patterns and techniques, and selects suitable shots from the database. Our real-time 3D environment gives the user the freedom to observe and explore the effect of applying communicative goals without worrying about the details of actor positions, scene, or camera placement.

Keywords

context-aware camera control interactive storytelling virtual cinematography computer animation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Lothe, J.: Narrative in Fiction and Film: An Introduction. Oxford University Press (2000)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    He, L.W., Cohen, M.F., Salesin, D.H.: The virtual cinematographer: A paradigm for automatic real-time camera control and directing. In: Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 1996, pp. 217–224. ACM Press (1996)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Drucker, S.M., Zeltzer, D.: Intelligent camera control in a virtual environment. In: Proceedings of Graphics Interface, vol. 94, pp. 190–199 (1994)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bares, W.H., Thainimit, S., Mcdermott, S.: A Model for Constraint-Based Camera Planning. In: Smart Graphics (2000)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Amerson, D., Kime, S.: Real-time cinematic camera control for interactive narratives. In: Proceedings of the 2005 ACM SIGCHI International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology, pp. 369–369. ACM Press (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kneafsey, J., McCabe, H.: Camerabots: Cinematography for games with non-player characters as camera operators. In: DIGRA Conf. (2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lino, C., Christie, M., Lamarche, F., Schofield, G., Olivier, P.: A Real-time Cinematography System for Interactive 3D Environments. In: 2010 ACM SIGGRAPH Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation, vol. 1, pp. 139–148 (2010)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Porteous, J., Cavazza, M., Charles, F.: Narrative generation through characters’ point of view. In: Proceedings of the 9th AAMAS Conference, International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, pp. 1297–1304 (2010)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Elson, D.K., Riedl, M.O.: A Lightweight Intelligent Virtual Cinematography System for Machinima Production. In: Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment, Palo Alto, California, USA (2007)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jhala, A., Young, R.M.: Cinematic Visual Discourse: Representation, Generation, and Evaluation. IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games 2(2), 69–81 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lino, C., Christie, M.: Efficient Composition for Virtual Camera Control. In: Eurographics/ ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Computer Animation (2012)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pei-Chun Lai
    • 1
  • Hui-Yin Wu
    • 1
  • Cunka Sanokho
    • 2
  • Marc Christie
    • 2
  • Tsai-Yen Li
    • 1
  1. 1.National Chengchi UniversityTaiwan
  2. 2.IRISA/INRIARennesFrance

Personalised recommendations