Conservation Agriculture and Climate Change

  • M. PisanteEmail author
  • F. Stagnari
  • M. Acutis
  • M. Bindi
  • L. Brilli
  • V. Di Stefano
  • M. Carozzi


This chapter review aims at developing a clear understanding of the impacts and benefits of conservation agriculture (CA) with respect to climate change, and examining if there are any misleading findings at present in the scientific literature. Most of the world’s agricultural soils have been depleted of organic matter and soil health over the years under tillage-based agriculture (TA), compared with their state under natural vegetation. This degradation process can be reversed and this chapter identifies the conditions that can lead to increase in soil organic matter content and improvement in soil health under CA practices which involve minimum soil disturbance, maintenance of soil cover, and crop diversity. The chapter also discusses the need to refer to specific carbon pools when addressing carbon sequestration, as each carbon category has a different turnover rate. With respect to greenhouse gas emissions, sustainable agricultural systems based on CA principles are described which result in lower emissions from farm operations as well as from machinery manufacturing processes, and that also help to reduce fertilizer use. This chapter describes that terrestrial carbon sequestration efficiently be achieved by changing the management of agricultural lands from high soil disturbance, as TA practices to low disturbance, as CA practices, and by adopting effective nitrogen management practices to provide a positive nitrogen balance for carbon sequestration. However, full advantages of CA in terms of carbon sequestration can usually be observed only in the medium to longer term when CA practices and associated carbon sequestration processes in the soil are well established.


Farm machinery Greenhouse gas emissions Soil health Tillage-based agriculture 


  1. Acton SD, Baggs EM (2011) Interactions between N application rate, CH4 oxidation and N2O production in soil. Biogeochemistry 103:15–26Google Scholar
  2. Acutis M, Ducco G, Grignani C (2000) Stochastic use of the LEACHN model to forecast nitrate leaching in different maize cropping systems. Eur J Agron 13:191–206Google Scholar
  3. Ainsworth EA, Long SP (2005) What have we learned from 15 years of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE)? A meta-analytic review of the responses of photosynthesis, canopy properties and plant production to rising CO2. New Phytol 165:351–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Akbolat D, Evrendilek F, Coskan A, Ekinci K (2009) Quantifying soil respiration in response to short-term tillage practices: a case study in southern Turkey. Acta Agric Scand Sect B Plant Soil Sci 59:50–56Google Scholar
  5. Alexander LV, Zhang X, Peterson TC, Caesar J, Gleason B, Klein Tank AMG (2006) Global observed changes in daily climate extremes of temperature and precipitation (1984–2012). J Geophys Res Atmos 111(D5)Google Scholar
  6. Al-Kaisi M (2008) Impact of tillage and crop rotation systems on soil carbon sequestration. Iowa State University, IowaGoogle Scholar
  7. Alston J (2010) The benefits from agricultural research and development, innovation, and productivity growth. OECD Food, agriculture and fisheries working papers, No. 31. OECD Publ., Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  8. Alvear M, Rosas A, Rouanet JL, Borie F (2005) Effects of three soil tillage systems on some biological activities in an Ultisol from southern Chile. Soil Till Res 82:195–202Google Scholar
  9. Alves AC, Setter TL (2004) Response of cassava leaf area expansion to water deficit: cell proliferation, cell expansion and delayed development. Ann Bot 94:605–613PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Alves BJR, Zotarelli L, Boddey RM, Urquiaga S (2002) Soybean benefit to a subsequent wheat cropping system under zero tiIIage In: Nuclear techniques in integrated plant nutrient, water and soil management: proceedings of a Symposium held in Vienna, 16–20 October 2000 Vienna: IAEA 2002, pp 87–93Google Scholar
  11. Alves BJR, Boddey RM, Urquiaga S (2003) The success of BNF in soybean in Brazil. Plant Soil 252:1–9Google Scholar
  12. Alves BJR, Zotarelli L, Fernandes FM, Heckler JC, Macedo RAT, Boddey RM, Jantalia CP, Urquiaga S (2006) Biological nitrogen fixation and nitrogen fertilizer on the nitrogen balance of soybean, maize and cotton. Pesq Agrop Bras 41-3:449–456Google Scholar
  13. Amado TJC, Costa CN (2004) Solos sob sistema Plantio Direto no Brasil podem atuar como importante tampão ambiental. Jornal Direto no Cerrado 37:21–22Google Scholar
  14. Amado TJC, Mielniczuck J, Fernandes SBV, Bayer C (1999) Culturas de cobertura, acúmulo de nitrogenio total no solo e produtividade de milho. Rev Bras Ciência Solo 23:679–686Google Scholar
  15. Amado TJC, Bayer C, Eltz FLF, Brum AC (2001) Potencial de culturas de cobertura em acumular carbono e nitrogenio no solo no plantio direto e a melhoria da qualidade ambiental. Rev Bras Ciência Solo 25:189–197Google Scholar
  16. Ambus P, Jensen ES, Robertson GP (2001) Nitrous oxide and N-leaching losses from agricultural soil: influence of crop residue particle size, quality and placement, Phyton-Ann. REI Bot 41:7–15Google Scholar
  17. Andersen A (1999) Plant protection in spring cereal production with reduced tillage. II. Pests and beneficial insects. Crop Prot 18:651–657Google Scholar
  18. Angers DA, Bolinder MA, Carter MR, Gregorich EG, Drury CF, Liang BC, Voroney RP, Simard RR, Donald RG, Beyaert RP, Martel J (1997) Impact of tillage practices on organic carbon and nitrogen storage in cool, humid soils of eastern Canada. Soil Till Res 41:191–201Google Scholar
  19. Azooz RH, Arshad MA (1996) Soil infiltration and hydraulic conductivity under long-term no-tillage and conventional tillage systems. Can J Soil Sci 76:143–152Google Scholar
  20. Baggs EM, Chebii J, Ndufa JK (2006) A short-term investigation of trace gas emissions following tillage and no-tillage of agroforestry residues in western Kenya. Soil Till Res 90:69–76Google Scholar
  21. Bailey VL, Smith JL, Bolton HJ (2002) Fungal-to-bacterial ratios in soils investigated for enhanced carbon sequestration. Soil Biol Biochem 34:1385–1389Google Scholar
  22. Baker JM, Ochsner TE, Venterea RT, Griffis TJ (2007) Tillage and soil carbon sequestration-what do we really know? Agric Ecosyst Environ 118:1–5Google Scholar
  23. Balabane M, Bureau F, Decaens T, Akpa M, Hedde M, Laval K, Puget P, Pawlak B, Barray S, Cluzeau D, Labreuche J, Bodet JM, Le Bissonnais Y, Saulas P, Bertrand M, Guichard L, Picard D, Houot S, Arrouays D, Brygoo Y, Chenu C (2005) Restauration de fonctions et proprietes des sols de grande culture intensive: effets de systemes de culture alternatifs sur les matieres organiques et la structure des sols limoneux, et approche du role fonctionnel de la diversitè biologique des sols. GESSOL/projet Dmostra. Rapport final, p 119Google Scholar
  24. Ball BC, Scott A, Parker JP (1999) Field N2O, CO2 and CH4 fluxes in relation to tillage, compaction and soil quality in Scotland. Soil Till Res 53:29–39Google Scholar
  25. Balota EL, Colozzi A, Andrade DS, Dick RP (2004) Long-term tillage and crop rotation effects on microbial biomass and C and N mineralization in a Brazilian Oxisol. Soil Till Res 77:137–145Google Scholar
  26. Barnes BT, Ellis FB (1979) Effects of different methods of cultivation and direct drilling and disposal of straw residues on populations of earthworms. J Soil Sci 30:679Google Scholar
  27. Battisti DS, Naylor RL (2009) Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat. Science 323:240–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Bayer C, Bertol I (1999) Características químicas de um Cambissolo húmico afetadas por sistemas de preparo, com enfase à matéria organica. Rev Bras Ciência Solo 23:687–694Google Scholar
  29. Bayer C, Mielniczuck J (1997) Nitrogênio total de um solo submetido a diferentes métodos de preparo e sistemas de culturas. Rev Bras Ciência Solo 21:235–239Google Scholar
  30. Bayer C, Martin-Neto L, Mielniczuck J, Ceretta CA (2000a) Effect of no-tillage cropping systems on SOM in a sandy clay loam Acrisol from Southern Brazil monitored by electron spin resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance. Soil Till Res 53:95–104Google Scholar
  31. Bayer C, Mielniczuck J, Amado TJC, Martin-Neto L, Fernandes SBV (2000b) Organic matter storage in a sandy clay loam Acrisol affected by tillage and cropping systems in southern Brazil. Soil Till Res 54:101–109Google Scholar
  32. Beare MH, Parmelee RW, Hendrix PF, Cheng W, Coleman DC, Crossley DA (1992) Microbial and faunal interactions and effects on litter nitrogen and decomposition in agroecosystems. Ecol Monogr 62:569–591Google Scholar
  33. Beare MH, Pohlad BR, Wright DH, Coleman DC (1993) Residue placement and fungicide effects on fungal communities in conventional and no-tillage soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 57:392–399Google Scholar
  34. Beaudoin N, Saad JK, Van Laethem C, Machet JM, Maucorps J, Mary B (2005) Nitrate leaching in intensive agriculture in Northern France: effect of farming practices, soils and crop rotations. Agric Ecosyst Environ 111:292–310Google Scholar
  35. Ben Moussa-MachraouiS, Errouissi F, Ben-Hammouda M, Nouira S (2010) Comparative effects of conventional and no-tillage management on some soil properties under Mediterranean semi-arid conditions in North-Western Tunisia. Soil Till Res 106:247–253Google Scholar
  36. Berntsen J, Grant R, Olesen JE, Kristensen IS, Vinther FP, Molgaard JP, Petersen BM (2006) Nitrogen cycling in organic farming systems with rotational grass-clover and arable crops. Soil Use Manage 22:197–208Google Scholar
  37. Bindi M, Olesen JE (2011) The responses of agriculture in Europe to climate change. Reg Environ Change 11:S151–158Google Scholar
  38. Bindi M, Fibbi L, Gozzini B, Orlandini S, Miglietta F (1996) Modeling the impact of future climate scenarios on yield and yield variability of grapevine. Clim Res 7:213–224Google Scholar
  39. Black HIJ, Okwakol MJN (1997) Agricultural intensification, soil biodiversity and agroecosystem function in the tropics: the role of termites. Appl Soil Ecol 6:37–53Google Scholar
  40. Black AL, Tanaka DL (1997) A conservation tillage-cropping systems study in the Northern Great Plains of the United States. In: Paul EA et al (eds) Soil organic matter in temperate agroecosystems—Long-term experiments in North America. CRC, New York, 335–342Google Scholar
  41. Blanchart E, Albrecht A, Brown G, Decaens T, Duboisset A, Lavelle P, Mariani L, Roose E (2004) Effects of tropical endogeic earthworms on soil erosion. Agric Ecosyst Environ 104:303–315Google Scholar
  42. Blevins RL, Thomas GW, Cornelius PL (1977) Influence of no-tillage and nitrogen fertilization on certain soil properties after 5 years of continuous corn. Agron J 69:383–386Google Scholar
  43. Blevins RL, Lal R, Doran JW, Langdale GW, Frye WW (1998) Conservation tillage for erosioncontrol and soil quality. In: Pierce FJ, Frye WW (eds) Advances in soil and water conservation. Ann Arbor Press, Michigan, pp 51–68Google Scholar
  44. Bøckman OChr OHW (1998) Fertilizers, agronomy and N2O. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 52:165–170Google Scholar
  45. Boddey RM, de Moraes SJC, de Alves M, Urquiaga BJR (1997) The contribution of biological nitrogen fixation for sustainable agricultural systems in the tropics. Soil Biol Biochem 29:787–799Google Scholar
  46. Boddey RM, Alves BJR, Soares LH deB, Jantalia CP, Urquiaga S (2009) Biological nitrogen fixation and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. In: Emerich DW, Krishnan HB (eds) Agronomy Monograph Nitrogen Fixation in Crop Production. Am Soc Agron, Crop Sci Soc Am, and Soil Sci Soc Am Madison, Wisconsin, pp 387–413Google Scholar
  47. Bol R, Kandeler E, Amelung W, Glaser B, Marx MC, Preedy N, Lorenz K (2003) Short-term effects of dairy slurry amendment on carbon sequestration and enzyme activities in a temperate grassland. Soil Biol Biochem 35:1411–1421Google Scholar
  48. Boone FR, Slager S, Miedema R, Eleveld R (1976) Some influences of zero-tillage on the structure and stability of fine textured river levee soil. Neth J Agric Sci 24:105–119Google Scholar
  49. Born M, Dorr H, Levin J (1994) Methane consumption in aerated soils of the temperate zone. Tellus B 42:2–8Google Scholar
  50. Bouwman AF, Lee DS, Asman AH, Dentener EJ, Van Der Hoe KW, Olivier JGJ (1997) A global high-resolution emission inventory for ammonia. Global Biogeochem Cycles 11:561–587Google Scholar
  51. Bradford JM, Peterson GA (2000) Conservation tillage. In: Summer ME (ed) Handbook of soil science. CRC, Boca Raton, pp G247–269Google Scholar
  52. Bronson KF, Neue HU, Singh U, Abao EB Jr (1997) Automated chamber measurements of methane and nitrous oxide flux in a flooded rice soil: I. Residue nitrogen and water management. Soil Sci Soc Am J 61:981–987Google Scholar
  53. Butterbach-Bahl K, Dannenmann M (2011) Denitrification and associated soil N2O emissions due to agricultural activities in a changing climate. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 3:389–395Google Scholar
  54. Butterbach-Bahl K, Papen H, Rennenberg H (1997) Impact of gas transport through rice cultivars on methane emission from rice paddy fields. Plant Cell Environ 20:1175–1183Google Scholar
  55. Buyanovsky GA, Wagner GH (1998) Carbon cycling in cultivated land and its global significance. Global Change Biol 4:131–141Google Scholar
  56. Carter MR, Steed GR (1992) The effects of direct-drilling and stubble retention on hydraulic-properties at the surface of duplex soils in North-Eastern Victoria. Aust J Soil Res 30:505–516Google Scholar
  57. Cai ZC, Xing GX, Yan XY, Xu H, Tsuruta H, Yagi K, Minami K (1997) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice paddy fields as affected by nitrogen fertilizers and water management. Plant Soil 196:7–14Google Scholar
  58. Campbell CA, McConkey BG, Zentner RP, Dyck FB, Selles F, Curtin D (1996a) Longterm effects of tillage and crop rotations on soil organic C and total N in a clay soil in southwestern Saskatchewan. Can J Soil Sci 76:395–401Google Scholar
  59. Campbell CA, McConkey BG, Zentner RP, Selles F, Curtin D (1996b) Tillage and crop rotation effects on soil organic C and N in a coarse-textured Typic Haploboroll in southwestern Saskatchewan. Soil Till Res 37:3–14Google Scholar
  60. Campbell CA, Lafond GP, Moulin AP, Townley-Smith L, Zentner RP (1997) Crop production and soil organic matter in long-term crop rotations in the sub-humid northern Great Plains of Canada. In: Paul EA et al. (eds) Soil organic matter in temperate agroecosystems-Long-term experiments in North America. CRC, New York, 297–315Google Scholar
  61. Cantero-Martinez C, Gabina D, Arrue JL (2007) Evaluation of conservation agriculture technology in Mediterranean agriculture systems. In: Fares SB, Asfary A, Belloum A, Steiner K, Friedrich T (eds) Proceedings of the International Workshop on Conservation Agriculture for Sustainable Land Management to Improve the Livelihood of People in Dry Areas 2007 May 7–9, Damascus, Syria. ACSAD and GTZ, p 157–164Google Scholar
  62. Carozzi M, Loubet B, Acutis M, Rana G, Ferrara RM (2013a) Inverse dispersion modelling highlights the efficiency of slurry injection to reduce ammonia losses by agriculture in the Po Valley (Italy). Agric Forest Meteorol 171-172:306–318Google Scholar
  63. Carozzi M, Ferrara RM, Rana G, Acutis M (2013b) Evaluation of mitigation strategies to reduce ammonia losses from slurry fertilisation on arable lands. Sci Total Environ 449:126–133Google Scholar
  64. Chadwick DR, van der Weerden T, Martinez J, Pain BF (1998) Nitrogen transformations and losses following pig slurry applications to a natural soil filter system (Solepur process) in Britany, France. J Agr Eng Res 69:85–93Google Scholar
  65. Chan KY (1997) Consequences of changes in particulate organic carbon in vertisols under pasture and cropping. Soil Sci Soc Am J 61:1376–1382Google Scholar
  66. Chan KY (2001) An overview of some tillage impacts on earthworm population abundance and diversity—implications for functioning in soils. Soil Till Res 57:179–191Google Scholar
  67. Chan KY, Heenan DP (1993) Surface hydraulic-properties of a red earth under continuous cropping with different management-practices. Aust J Soil Res 31:13–24Google Scholar
  68. Chan KY, Bowman A, Oates A (2001) Oxidizible organic carbon fractions and soil quality changes in an oxic paleustalf under different pasture leys. Soil Sci 166:61–67Google Scholar
  69. Chan KY, Heenan DP, Oates A (2002) Soil carbon fractions and relationship to soil quality under different tillage and stubble management. Soil Till Res 63:133–139Google Scholar
  70. Chantigny MH, Rochette P, Angers DA (2001) Short-term C and N dynamics in a soil amended with pig slurry and barley straw: a field experiment. Can J Soil Sci 81:131–137Google Scholar
  71. Chen YT, Borken W, Stange CF, Matzner E (2011) Effects of decreasing water potential on gross ammonification and nitrification in an acid coniferous forest soil. Soil Biol Biochem 43:333–338Google Scholar
  72. Christensen B, Montgomery JM, Fawcett RS, Tierney D (1995) Best management practices for water quality. Conservation Technology Information Center, West Lafayette, pp 1–3Google Scholar
  73. Cicerone RJ, Delwiche CC, Tyler SC, Zimmerman PR (1992) Methane emissions from California rice paddies with varied treatments. Global Biogeochem Cycles 6:233–248Google Scholar
  74. Clausen JC, Jokela WE, Potter FI, Williams JW (1996) Paired watershed comparison of tillage effects on runoff, sediment, and pesticide losses. J Environ Qual 25:1000–1007Google Scholar
  75. Cleland EE, Chuine I, Menzel A, Mooney HA, Schwartz MD (2007) Shifting plant phenology in response to global change. Trends Ecol Evol 22:357–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Cochran VL, Sparrow SD, Sparrow EB (1994) Residue effect on soil micro- and macroorganisms. In: Unger PW (ed) Managing agricultural residues. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 163–184Google Scholar
  77. Confalonieri R, Donatelli Bregaglio S, Tubiello FN, Fernandes E (2012) Agroecological zones simulator: A component based, open-access, transparent platform for climate change - crop productivity impact assessment in Latin America. iEMSs 6th International Congress, Leipzig, 1–5 JulyGoogle Scholar
  78. Corsi S, Friedrich T, Kassam A, Pisante M, Sà J de M (2012) Soil organic carbon accumulation and greenhouse gas emission reductions from conservation agriculture: a literature review. Integrated crop management, vol 16. Plant Production and Protection Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  79. Dai A, Fung IY, DelGenio AD (1997) Surface observed global land precipitation variations during 1900-1998. J Climate 10:2943–2962Google Scholar
  80. Dass A, Sudhishri S, Lenka NK, Patnaik US (2010) Runoff capture through vegetative barriers and planting methodologies to reduce erosion, and improve soil moisture, fertility and crop productivity in southern Orissa. India Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 10:1–13Google Scholar
  81. De Alba S, Lacasta C, Benito G, Perez-Gonzalez A (2001) Influence of soil management on water erosion in a Mediterranean semi-arid environment in Central Spain. In: Garcıa-Torres L, Benites J, Martınez-Vilela A (eds) Conservation agriculture, a worldwide challenge, vol 2. ECAF and FAO, SpainGoogle Scholar
  82. De laRD, Diaz-Pereira E, Mayol F, Czyz EA, Dexter AR, Dumitru E, Enache R, Fleige H, Horn R, Rajkay K, Simota C (2005) SIDASS project Part2. Soil erosion as a function of soil type and agricultural management in Sevilla olive area, Southern Spain. Soil Till Res 82:19–28Google Scholar
  83. de Maria IC, Nnabude PC, de Castro OM (1999) Long-term tillage effects on soil chemical properties of a Rhodic Ferralsol in Southern Brazil. Soil Till Res 51:71–79Google Scholar
  84. De MSàJCM, Cerri CC, Dick WA, Lal R, Filho SPV, Piccolo MC, Feigl BE (2001) Organic matter dynamics and carbon sequestration rates for a tillage chronosequence in a Brazilian Oxisol. Soil Sci Soc Am J 65:1486–1499Google Scholar
  85. Decaëns T, Jimenez JJ (2002) Earthworm communities under an agricultural intensification gradient in Colombia. Plant Soil 240:133–143Google Scholar
  86. Deibert EJ, Utte RA, Schwert DP (1991) Tillage system influence on earthworms (Lumbricidae) in North Dakota. N Dak Farm Res 48:10–12Google Scholar
  87. Del Río S, Herrero L, Pinto-Gomes C, Penas A (2011) Spatial analysis of mean temperature trends in Spain over the period 1961–2006. Glob Planet Change 79:65–75Google Scholar
  88. Denier vanderGHAC, Neue HU (1995) Influence of organic matter incorporation on the methane emission from a wetland rice field. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 9:11–22Google Scholar
  89. Dennis P, Thomas MB, Sotherton NW (1994) Structural features of field boundaries which influence the overwintering densities of beneficial arthropod predators. J Appl Ecol 31:361–370Google Scholar
  90. Derpsch R, Franzluebbers AJ, Duiker SW, Reicosky DC, Koeller K, Friedrich T, Sturny WG, Sa´ JCM, Weiss K (2014) Why do we need to standardize no-tillage research? (Letter to the Editor). Soil Till Res 137:16–22Google Scholar
  91. Diekow J, Mielniczuk J, Knicker H, Bayer C, Dick DP, Kogel-Knabner I (2005) Soil C and N stocks as affected by cropping systems and nitrogen fertilisation in a Southern Brazil Acrisol managed under no-tillage for 17 years. Soil Till Res 81:87–95Google Scholar
  92. Doran JW, Parkin TB (1994) Defining and assessing soil quality. In: Doran JW, Coleman DC, Bezdicek DF, Stewart BA (eds) Defining soil quality for a sustainable environment. SSSA special publication no. 35, Madison, pp 3–21Google Scholar
  93. Doran JW, Liebig MA, Santana DP (1998) Soil health and global sustainability. In: Transactions of the 16th World Congress of Soil Science. Montepellier. 20–26 August, FranceGoogle Scholar
  94. Drijber RA, Doran JW, Parkhurst AM, Lyon DJ (2000) Changes in soil microbial community structure with tillage under long-term wheat-fallow management. Soil Biol Biochem 32:1419–1430Google Scholar
  95. Drinkwater LE, Wagoner P, Sarrantonio M (1998) Legume-based cropping systems have reduced carbon and nitrogen losses. Nature 396:262–265Google Scholar
  96. Du Preez CC, Steyn JT, Kotze E (2001) Long-term effects of wheat residue management on some fertility indicators of a semi-arid Plinthosol. Soil Till Res 63:25–33Google Scholar
  97. Duiker SW, Beegle DB (2006) Soil fertility distributions in long-term no-till, chisel/disk and moldboard plow/disk systems. Soil Till Res 88:30–41Google Scholar
  98. Eagle AJ, Henry LR, Olander LP, Haugen-Kozyra KH, Millar N, Robertson GP (2011) Greenhouse gas mitigation potential of agricultural land management in the United States: a synthesis of the literature, 2nd edn. Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions, Durham, North CarolinaGoogle Scholar
  99. Easterling W, Apps M (2005) Assessing the consequences of climate change for food and forest resources: a view from the IPCC. Clim Change 70:165–189Google Scholar
  100. Edwards CA, Bohlen PJ (1996) Biology and ecology of earthworms. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  101. Edwards JH, Wood CW, Thurlow DL, Ruf ME (1992) Tillage and crop-rotation effects on fertility status of a hapludult soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 56:1577–1582Google Scholar
  102. Entry IA, Mitchell CC, Backman CB (1996) Influence of management practices on soil organic matter, microbial biomass and cotton yield in Alabama’s “Old Rotation”. Biol Fertil Soils 23-4:353–358Google Scholar
  103. Erenstein O (2002) Crop residue mulching in tropical and semi-tropical countries: an evaluation of residue availability and other technological implications. Soil Till Res 67:115–133Google Scholar
  104. Evans R (1996) Soil erosion and its impacts in England and Wales. Friends of the Earth, London, p 121Google Scholar
  105. FAO (2001) World Soil Resources Reports 96: Soil carbon sequestration for improved land management. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  106. FAO (2008) The case for improving soil health. In: Proceedings of the International Technical Workshop on Investing in Sustainable Crop Intensification, 22–24 July. Integrated Crop Management, vol 6. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  107. FAO (2009) Food security and agricultural mitigation in developing countries: options for capturing synergies. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  108. FAO (2011) What is conservation agriculture? FAO conservation agriculture website.
  109. FAO (2012) Soil organic carbon accumulation and greenhouse gas emission reductions from conservation agriculture: a literature review. Integr Crop Manag 16:89Google Scholar
  110. FAO (2014) FAOSTAT database. FAO, Rome, Italy. Accessed 10 Feb 2014
  111. Farrar JF (1996) Sinks, integral parts of a whole plant. J Exp Bot 47:1273–1279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Ferguson HJ, McPherson RM (1985) Abundance and diversity of adult carabidae in 4 soybean cropping systems in Virginia. J Entomol Sci 20:163–171Google Scholar
  113. Ferreras LA, Costa JL, García FO, Pecorari C (2000) Effect of no-tillage on some soil physical properties of a structural degraded Petrocalcic Paleudoll of the southern “Pampa” of Argentina. Soil Till Res 54:31–39Google Scholar
  114. Filho CC, Lourenco A, Guimaraes MDF, Fonseca ICB (2002) Aggregate stability under different soil management systems in a red latosol in the state of Parana, Brazil. Soil Till Res 65:45–51Google Scholar
  115. Flessa H, Beese F (2000) Laboratory estimates of trace gas emissions following surface application and injection of cattle slurry. J Environ Qual 29:262–268Google Scholar
  116. Folgarait PJ (1998) Ant biodiversity and its relationship to ecosystem functioning: a review. Biodivers Conserv 7:1221–1244Google Scholar
  117. Fontaine S (2007) Stability of organic carbon in deep soil layers controlled by fresh carbon supply. Nature 450:277–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Fontaine S, Bardoux G, Abbadie L, Mariotti A (2004) Carbon input to soil may decrease soil carbon content. Ecol Lett 7:314–320Google Scholar
  119. Francis GS, Knight TL (1993) Long-term effects of conventional and no-tillage on selected soil properties and crop yields in Canterbury, New Zealand. Soil Till Res 26:193–210Google Scholar
  120. Franzaring J, Högy P, Fangmeier A (2008) Effects of free-air CO2 enrichment on the growth of summer oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Campino). Agric Ecosyst Environ 128:127–134Google Scholar
  121. Franzluebbers AJ, Hons FM (1996) Soil-profile distribution of primary and secondary plantavailable nutrients under conventional and no tillage. Soil Till Res 39:229–239Google Scholar
  122. Franzluebbers AJ, Hons FM, Zuberer DA (1995a) Tillage and crop effects on seasonal soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics. Soil Sci Soc Am J 59:1618–1624Google Scholar
  123. Franzluebbers K, Weaver RW, Juo ASR, Franzluebbers AJ (1995b) Mineralization of carbon and nitrogen from cowpea leaves decomposing in soils with different levels of microbial biomass. Biol Fertil Soils 19:100–102Google Scholar
  124. Franzluebbers AJ, Haney RL, Hons FM, Zuberer DA (1999) Assessing biological soil quality with chloroform fumigation-incubation: why subtract a control? Can J Soil Sci 79:521–528Google Scholar
  125. Frey SD, Elliott ET, Paustian K (1999) Bacterial and fungal abundance and biomass inconventional and no-tillage agroecosystems along two climatic gradients. Soil Biol Biochem 31:573–585Google Scholar
  126. Friebe B, Henke W (1991) Bodentiere und deren Strohabbauleistungen bei reduzierter Bodenbearbeitung. Z. f. Kulturtechnik und Landentwicklung 32:121–126Google Scholar
  127. Frielinghaus M (2002) Soil erosion and pesticide translocation control. In: Pimental D (ed) Encyclopedia of pest management. CRC, New York, pp 777–780Google Scholar
  128. Gál A, Vyn TJ, Michéli E, Kladivko EJ, Mcfee WW (2007) Soil carbon and nitrogen accumulation with long-term no-till versus moldboard plowing overestimated with tilled-zone sampling depths. Soil Till Res 96:42–51Google Scholar
  129. Galloway JN, Townsend AR, Erisman JW, Bekunda M, Cai ZC, Freney JR, Martinelli LA, Seitzinger SP, Sutton MA (2008) Transformation of the nitrogen cycle: recent trends, questions, and potential solutions. Science 320:889–892PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Gerard BM, Hay RKM (1979) The effect on earthworms of plowing, tined cultivation, direct drilling and nitrogen in a barley monoculture system. J Agr Sci 93:147–155Google Scholar
  131. Giannakopoulos C, Le Sager P, Bindi M, Moriondo M, Kostopoulou A, Goodess CM (2009) Climatic changes and associated impacts in the Mediterranean resulting from a 2 °C global warming. Glob Planet Change 68:209–224Google Scholar
  132. Gicheru PT (1994) Effects of residue mulch and tillage on soil-moisture conservation. Soil Technol 7:209–220Google Scholar
  133. Goddard T, Haugen-Kozyra K, Ridge A (2009) Conservation agriculture protocols for green house gas offsets in a working carbon market. Paper presented at the IV World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, 3–7 February 2009, New Delhi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  134. Gómez JA, Giraldez JV, Fereres E (2005) Water erosion in olive orchards in Andalusia (Southern Spain): a review. Geophys Res Abst 7Google Scholar
  135. Gotwald WH (1986) The beneficial economic role of ants. In: Vinson SB (ed) Economic impact and control of social insects. Praeger, New York, pp 290–313Google Scholar
  136. Govaerts B, Sayre KD, Lichter K, Dendooven L, Deckers J (2007) Influence of permanent raised bed planting and residue management on physical and chemical soil quality in rain fed maize/wheat systems. Plant Soil 291:39–54Google Scholar
  137. Grandy AS, Robertson GP, Thelen KD (2006) Do productivity and environmental trade-offs ustify periodically cultivating no-till cropping systems? Agron J 98:1377–1383Google Scholar
  138. Greb BW (1966) Effect of surface-applied wheat straw on soil water losses by solar distillation. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 30:786Google Scholar
  139. Gregorich EG, Drur CF, Baldock JA (2001) Changes in soil carbon under long-term maize in monoculture and legume-based rotation. Can J Soil Sci 81:21–31Google Scholar
  140. Gregorich EG, Rochette P, VandenBygaart AJ, Angers D (2005) Greenhouse gas contributions of agricultural soils and potential mitigation practices in Eastern Canada. Soil Till Res 81:53–72Google Scholar
  141. Guggenberger G, Frey SD, Six J, Paustian K, Elliott ET (1999) Bacterial and fungal cellwall residues in conventional and no-tillage agroecosystems. Soil Sci Soc Am J 63:1188–1198Google Scholar
  142. Haines PJ, Uren NC (1990) Effectsof conservation tillage farming on soil microbial biomass, organic matter and earthworm population, in north-eastern Victoria. Aust J Exp Agric 30:365–371Google Scholar
  143. Hansen S, Maehlum JE, Bakken LR (1993) N2O and CH4 fluxes in soil influenced by fertilization and tractor traffic. Soil Biol Biochem 25:621–630Google Scholar
  144. Hansen EM, Munkholm LJ, Melander B, Olesen JE (2010) Can non-inversion tillage and straw retainment reduce N leaching in cereal-based crop rotations? Soil Till Res 109:1–8Google Scholar
  145. Harper D (1992) Eutrophication of fresh waters. Chapman & Hall, Saffolk, p 327Google Scholar
  146. Harper LA (2005) Ammonia: measurement issues. In: Hatfield JL, Baker JM, Viney MK (eds) Micrometeorology in agricultural systems, Agronomy Monograph, vol 47. ASA, Madison, pp 345–379Google Scholar
  147. Harrison PA, Butterfield R, Downing TE (1995) Climate change and agriculture in Europe: assessment of impacts and adaptations. Research Report No. 9, Environmental Change Unit, University of Oxford, pp 330–388Google Scholar
  148. Hatfield JL, Sauer TJ, Prueger JH (2001) Managing soils to achieve greater water use efficiency: a review. Agric J 93:271–280Google Scholar
  149. Havlin JL, Kissel DE, Maddux LD, Claassen MM, Long JH (1990) Crop rotation and tillage effects on soil organic carbon and nitrogen. Soil Sci Soc Am J 54:448–452Google Scholar
  150. Hernanz JL, Lopez R, Navarrete L, Sanchez-Giron V (2002) Long-term effects of tillage systems and rotations on soil structural stability and organic carbon stratification in semiarid central Spain. Soil Till Res 66:129–141Google Scholar
  151. Hernanz L, Sánchez-Girón V, Navarrete L (2009) Soil carbon sequestration and stratification in a cereal/leguminous crop rotation with three tillage systems in semiarid conditions. Agric Ecosyst Environ 133:114–122Google Scholar
  152. Herrero EV, Mitchell JP, Lanini WT, Temple SR, Miyao EM, Morse RD, Campiglia E (2001) Soil properties change in no-till tomato production. Calif Agric 55:30–34Google Scholar
  153. Holland JM, Reynolds CJM (2003) The impact of soil cultivation on arthropod (Coleoptera and Araneae) emergence on arable land. Pedobiologia 47:181–191Google Scholar
  154. Holt JA, Robertson LN, Radford BJ (1993) Effects of tillage and stubble residue treatments on termite activity in 2 central Queensland vertosols. Aust J Soil Res 31:311–317Google Scholar
  155. Horáček J, Ledvina R, Raus A (2001) The content of quality of organic matter in cambisol in a long-term no tillage system. Rostlinná Výroba 47:205–210Google Scholar
  156. House GJ, Stinner BR (1983) Arthropods in no-tillage soybean agroecosystems—community composition and ecosystem interactions. Environ Manag 7:23–28Google Scholar
  157. House GJ, Parmelee RW (1985) Comparison of soil arthropods and earthworms from conventional and no-tillage agroecosystems. Soil Till Res 5:351–360Google Scholar
  158. Hu ZH, Ling H, Chen ST, Shen SH, Zhang H, Sun YY (2013) Soil respiration, nitrification, and denitrification in a wheat farmland soil under different managements. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 44:3092–3102Google Scholar
  159. Huijsmans JFM, Hol JMG, Vermeulen GD (2003) Effect of application method, manure characteristics, weather and filed conditions on ammonia volatilization from manure applied to arable land. Atmos Environ 37:3669–3680Google Scholar
  160. Hulme M, Osborn TJ, Johns TC (1998) Precipitation sensitivity to global warming: comparisons of observations with HadCM2 simulations. Geophys Res Lett 25:3379–3382Google Scholar
  161. Hussain A, Mulholland BJ, Black CR, Taylor IB, Roberts JA (1999a) Novel approaches for examining the effects of differential soil compaction on xylem sap ABA concentration, stomatal conductance and growth in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Plant Cell Environ 22(11):1377–1388Google Scholar
  162. Hussain I, Olson KR, Ebelhar SA (1999b) Long-term tillage effects on soil chemical properties and organic matter fractions. Soil Sci Soc Am J 63:1335–1341Google Scholar
  163. Hütsch BW (1998) Tillage and land use effects on methane oxidation rates and their vertical profiles in soil. Biol Fertil Soils 27:284–292Google Scholar
  164. Hütsch BW (2001) Methane oxidation, nitrification, and counts of methanotrophic bacteria in soils from a long-term fertilization experiment (‘‘Ewiger Roggenbau’’at Halle). J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 164:21–28Google Scholar
  165. Hütsch BW, Webster CP, Powlson DS (1993) Long term effects of nitrogen fertilization on methane oxidation in soil of the broadbalk wheat experiment. Soil Biol Biochem 25:1307–1315Google Scholar
  166. IPCC (2001) Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. In: Houghton JT, Ding Y, Griggs DJ, Noguer M, van der Linden PJ, Dai X, Maskell K, Johnson CA (eds) Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 881Google Scholar
  167. IPCC (2007) Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University , Cambridge, p 996Google Scholar
  168. IPCC (2013) Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis 2013Google Scholar
  169. Jagtap V, Bhargava S, Streb P, Feierabend J (1998) Comparative effect of water, heat and light stresses on photosynthetic reactions in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. J Exp Bot 49:1715–1721Google Scholar
  170. Jarecki MK, Lal R (2003) Crop management for soil carbon sequestration. Crit Rev Plant Sci 22:471–502Google Scholar
  171. Jiang Y, Huang B (2001) Drought and heat stress injury to two cool season turfgrasses in relation to antioxidant metabolism and lipid peroxidation. Crop Sci 41:436–442Google Scholar
  172. Johnson AM, Hoyt GD (1999) Changes to the soil environment under conservation tillage. HortTechnology 9:380–393Google Scholar
  173. Kassam A, Friedrich T, Shaxson F, Pretty J (2009) The spread of conservation agriculture: justification, sustainability and uptake. Int J Agric Sustainabil 7:292–320Google Scholar
  174. Kassam A, Basch G, Friedrich T, Shaxson F, Goddard T, Amado T, Crabtree B, Hongwen L, Mello I, Pisante M, Mkomwa S (2013) Soil management is more than what and how crops are grown. In: Lal R, Stewart BA (eds) Principles of sustainable soil management in agroecosystems. Series: advances in soil sciences. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 338–387, ISBN: 978-1-4665-1346–4Google Scholar
  175. Kay BD (1990) Rates of change of soil structure under different cropping systems. Adv Soil Sci 12:1–52Google Scholar
  176. Kimball BA, Kobayashi K, Bindi M (2002) Responses of agricultural crops to free-air CO2 enrichment. Advn Agron 77:293–368Google Scholar
  177. Kirkby MJ, Jones RJA, Irvine B, Gobin A, Govers G, Cerdan O, Van Rompaey AJJ, Le Bissonnais Y, Daroussin J, King D, Montanarella L, Grimm M, Vieillefont V, Puigdefabregas J, Boer M, Kosmas C, Yassoglou N, Tsara M, Mantel S, Van Lynden G (2004) Pan-European soil erosion risk assessment: the PESERA Map, Version 1 October 2003. Explanation of special publication Ispra 2004 No73 (S.P.I.04.73). European Soil Bureau Research Report No. 16, EUR 21176, 18 pp. and I map in ISO B1 format. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  178. Kladivko EJ (2001) Tillage systems and soil ecology. Soil Till Res 61:61–76Google Scholar
  179. Kladivko EJ, Akhouri NM, Weesies G (1997) Earthworm populations and species distributions under no-till and conventional tillage in Indiana and Illinois. Soil Biol Biochem 29:613–615Google Scholar
  180. Klein T, Holzkamper A, Calanca P, Seppelt R, Fuhrer J (2013) Adapting agricultural land management to climate change: a regional multi-objective optimization approach. Landscape Ecol 28:2029–2047Google Scholar
  181. Knowles TA, Singh B (2003) Carbon storage in cotton soils of northern New South Wales. Aust J Soil Res 41:889–903Google Scholar
  182. Kuzyakov Y, Friedel JK, Stahr K (2000) Review of mechanisms and quantification of priming effects. Soil Biol Biochem 32:1485–1498Google Scholar
  183. Laflen JM, Roose EJ (1998) Methodologies for assessment of soil degradation due to water erosion. In: Lal etal (eds) Methods for assessment of soil degradation: advances in soil science. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 31–55Google Scholar
  184. Lafond GP, Walley F, Schoenau J, May WE, Holzapfel CB, McKell J, Halford J (2008) Long-term vs. short-term conservation tillage: 28-43. In: Proceedings of the 20th annual meeting and conference of the Saskatchewan Soil Conservation Association, Regina, Saskatchewan, 12–13 FebruaryGoogle Scholar
  185. Lal R, Follett RF, Stewart BA, Kimble JM (2007) Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change and advance food security. Soil Sci 172(12):943–956Google Scholar
  186. Lampurlanés J, Cantero-Martınez C (2006) Hydraulic conductivity, residue cover and soil surface roughness under different tillage systems in semiarid conditions. Soil Till Res 5:13–26Google Scholar
  187. Le Mer J, Roger P (2001) Production, oxidation, emission and consumption of methane by soils: a review. Eur J Soil Biol 37:25–50Google Scholar
  188. Lessard R, Rochette P, Topp GC, Pattey E, Desjardins RL (1994) Methane and carbon dioxide fluxes from poorly drained adjacent cultivated and forest sites. Can J Soil Sci 74:139–146Google Scholar
  189. Levy PE, Burden A, Cooper MDA, Dinsmore KJ, Drewer J, Evans C, Fowler D, Gaiawyn J, Gray A, Jones SK, Jones T, McNamara NP, Mills R, Ostle N, Sheppard LJ, Skiba U, Sowerby A, Ward SE, Zielinskli P (2012) Methane emissions from soils: synthesis and analysis of a large UK data set. Glob Change Biol 18:1657–1669Google Scholar
  190. Li HW, Gao HW, Wu HD, Li WY, Wang XY, He J (2007) Effects of 15 years of conservation tillage on soil structure and productivity of wheat cultivation in northern China. Aust J Soil Res 45:344–350Google Scholar
  191. Linn DM, Doran JW (1984) Aerobic and anaerobic microbial populations in no-till and plowed soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 48:794–799Google Scholar
  192. Lobb D, Lindstrom MJ (1999) Tillage translocation and tillage erosion. Poster Presentation at Manitoba Soil Science Society Meeting Winnipeg, Manitoba, vol 75, pp 211–218, 1–2 February 1999Google Scholar
  193. Lobb D, Kachanoski RG, Miller MH (1995) Tillage translocation and tillage erosion on shoulder slope landscape positions measured using 137Cs as a tracer. Can J Soil Sci 75:211–218Google Scholar
  194. Lobell DB, Field CB (2007) Global scale climate-crop yield relationships and the impacts of recent warming. Environ Res Lett 2Google Scholar
  195. López MV, Arrue JL (2005) Soil tillage and wind erosion in fallow lands of Central Aragaon, Spain: an overview. In: Faz A, Ortiz R, Mermut AR (eds) Sustainable use management of soils: arid semiarid regions Advances in Geo Ecology, vol 36. Catena, Reiskirchen, 93–102Google Scholar
  196. Lopez MV, Gracia R, Arrue JL (2001) An evaluation of wind erosion hazards in fallow lands of semiarid Aragon (NE Spain). J Soil Water Conserv 56:212–219Google Scholar
  197. López-Bellido RJ, Fontán JM, López-Bellido FJ, López-Bellido L (2010) Carbon sequestration by tillage, rotation, and nitrogen fertilization in a mediterranean vertisol. Agron J 102:310–318Google Scholar
  198. Lopez-Fando C, Pardo MT (2001) The impact of tillage systems and crop rotations on carbon sequestration in calcic luvisol of central Spain. I World Congress on Conservation Agriculture. Madrid, 1–5 OctoberGoogle Scholar
  199. López-Fando C, Dorado J, Pardo MT (2007) Effects of zone-tillage in rotation with no-tillage on soil properties and crop yields in a semiarid soil from central Spain. Soil Till Res 95:266–276Google Scholar
  200. Lupwayi NZ, Monreal MA, Clayton GW, Grant CA, Johnston AM, Rice WA (2001) Soil microbial biomass and diversity respond to tillage and sulphur fertilizers. Can J Soil Sci 81:577–589Google Scholar
  201. Magdoff F, Weil RR (2004) Soil organic matter management strategies. In: Magdoff F, Weil RR (eds) Soil organic matter in sustainable agriculture. CRC, New York, pp 45–65Google Scholar
  202. Mando A, Miedema R (1997) Termite-induced change in soil structure after mulching degraded (crusted) soil in the Sahel. Appl Soil Ecol 6:241–249Google Scholar
  203. Marasas ME, Sarandon SJ, Cicchino AC (2001) Changes in soil arthropod functional group in a wheat crop under conventional and no tillage systems in Argentina. Appl Soil Ecol 18:61–68Google Scholar
  204. Mele PM, Carter MR (1999) Impact of crop management factors in conservation tillage farming on earthworm density, age structure and species abundance in south-eastern Australia. Soil Till Res 50:1–10Google Scholar
  205. Mitchell CC, Arriaga FJ, Entry JA, Novak JL, Goodman WR, Reeves DW, Runge MW, Traxler GJ (1996) The Old Rotation, 1896–1996 100 Years of Sustainable Cropping Research. Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, AL.z < 1Google Scholar
  206. Miyazawa K, Tsuji H, Yamagata M, Nakano H, Nakamoto T (2002) The effects of cropping systems and fallow managements on microarthropod populations. Plant Prod Sci 5:257–265Google Scholar
  207. Mojeremane W, Rees RM, Mencuccini M (2011) The effects of site preparation practices on carbon dioxide methane and nitrous oxide fluxes from a peaty gley soil. Forestry 19:1–15Google Scholar
  208. Montzka SA, Dlugokencky EJ, Butler JH (2011) Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change. Nature 476:43–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Moreno F, Murillo JM, Pelegrín F, Girón IF (2006) Long-term impact of conservation tillage on stratification ratio of soil organic carbon and loss of total and active CaCO3. Soil Till Res 85:86–93Google Scholar
  210. Moretto AS, Distel RA, Didone NG (2001) Decomposition and nutrient dynamic of leaf litter and roots from palatable and unpalatable grasses in a semiarid grassland. Appl Soil Ecol 18:31–37Google Scholar
  211. Moriondo M, Bindi M, Kundzewicz ZW, Szwed M, Chorynski A, Matczak P et al (2010) Impact and adaptation opportunities for European agriculture in response to climatic change and variability. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Change 15:657–679Google Scholar
  212. Mrabet R (2008) No-tillage systems for sustainable dryland agriculture in Morocco. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, TangierGoogle Scholar
  213. Mrabet R, Saber N, El-Brahli A, Lahlou S, Bessam F (2001) Total particulate organic matter and structural stability of a calcixeroll soil under different wheat rotations and tillage systems in a semiarid area of Morocco. Soil Till Res 57:225–235Google Scholar
  214. Mudge F, Adger WN (1995) Methane fluxes from artificial wetlands: a global appraisal. Environ Manag 19:39–55Google Scholar
  215. Mupangwa W, Twomlow S, Walker S, Hove L (2007) Effect of minimum tillage and mulching on maize (Zea mays L.) yield and water content of clayey and sandy soils. Phys Chem Earth 32:1127–1134Google Scholar
  216. Nesbit SP, Breitenbeck GA (1992) A laboratory study of factors influencing methane uptake by soils. Agric Ecosyst Environ 41:39–54Google Scholar
  217. Neue HU (1997) Fluxes of methane from rice fields and potential for mitigation. Soil Use Manag 13:258–267Google Scholar
  218. Newcombe CP, Macdonald DD (1991) Effects of suspended sediments on aquatic ecosystems. N Am J Fisheries Manag 11(1):72–82Google Scholar
  219. Nisbet MC (2009) Communicating climate change: why frames matter for public engagement. Environ Sci Policy Sustain Develop 51(2):12–23Google Scholar
  220. Nkem JN, de Bruyn LAL, Grant CD, Hulugalle NR (2000) The impact of ant bioturbation and foraging activities on surrounding soil properties. Pedobiologia 44:609–621Google Scholar
  221. Nouchi I, Hosono T, Aoki K, Minami K (2010) Seasonal variation in methane flux from rice paddies associated with methane concentration in soil water, rice biomass and temperature, and its modeling. Plant Soil 161:195–208Google Scholar
  222. Novak SM, Fiorelli JL (2010) Greenhouse gases and ammonia emission from organic mixed crop—dairy systems: a critical review of mitigation options. Agron Sustain Dev 30:215–236Google Scholar
  223. Nuutinen V (1992) Earthworm community response to tillage and residue management on different soil types in Southern Finland. Soil Till Res 23:221–239Google Scholar
  224. OECD (2009) The organisation for economic co-operation and development (OECD) annual report. OECD Publ., ParisGoogle Scholar
  225. OECD (2011) Fostering productivity and competitiveness in agriculture. OECD, ParisGoogle Scholar
  226. Olesen JE, Trnka M, Kersebaum KC, Skjelvåg AO, Seguin B, Peltonen-Sainio P et al (2011) Impacts and adaptation of European crop production systems to climate change. Eur J Agron 34:96–112Google Scholar
  227. Olesen JE, Børgensen CD, Elsgaard L, Palosuo T, Rötter R, Skjelvåg AO (2012) Changes in time of sowing, flowering and maturity of cereals in Europe under climate change. Food Addit Contam A 29(10):1527–1542Google Scholar
  228. Owens LB, Malone RW, Hothem DL, Starr GC, Lal R (2002) Sediment carbon concentration and transport from small watersheds under various conservation tillage. Soil Till Res 67:65–73Google Scholar
  229. Palm C, Blanco-Canqui H, De Clerck F, Gatere L, Grace P (2013) Conservation agriculture and ecosystem services: an overview. Agric Ecosyst Environ 187:87–105Google Scholar
  230. Papendick RI, Lindstro MJ, Cochran VL (1973) Soil mulch effects on seedbed temperature and water during fallow in Eastern Washington. Soil Sci Soc Am J 37:307–314Google Scholar
  231. Parmesan C (2006) Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 37:637–669Google Scholar
  232. Pelster DE, Chantigny MH, Rochette P, Angers DA, Laganière J, Zebarth B, Goyer C (2013) L̕apport de résidus de culture au sol modifie les émissions de protoxyde d̕azote induites par les cycles gel-dégel. Can J Soil Sci 93:415–425Google Scholar
  233. Peltonen-Sainio P, Jauhiainen L, Hakala K, Ojanen H (2009) Climate change and prolongation of growing season: changes in regional potential for field crop production in Finland. Agric Food Sci 18:171–190Google Scholar
  234. Perego A, Basile A, Bonfante A, De Mascellis R, Terribile F, Brenna S, Acutis M (2012) Nitrate leaching under maize cropping systems in Po Valley (Italy). Agric Ecosyst Environ 47:57–65Google Scholar
  235. Phillips FA, Leuning R, Baigent R, Kelly KB, Denmead OT (2007) Nitrous oxide flux measurements from an intensively managed irrigated pasture using micrometeorological techniques. Agric For Meteorol 143:92–105Google Scholar
  236. Pinheiro EFM, Pereira MG, Anjos LHC (2004) Aggregate distribution and soil organic matter under different tillage systems for vegetable crops in a Red Latosol from Brazil. Soil Till Res 77:79–84Google Scholar
  237. Pisante M (2002) Tecniche agronomiche conservative per la riduzione dei processi di degradazione del suolo. Atti convegno nazionale “Desertificazione: la nuova emergenza del bacino del mediterraneo”, Catania-Caltagirone-Palermo, 22–25 maggio 2001, pp 3–9Google Scholar
  238. Pisante M, Corsi S, Amir K, Friedrich T (2010) The challenge of agricultural sustainability for Asia and Europe. Transit Stud Rev 17(4):662–667. doi:10.1007/s11300-010-0181-zGoogle Scholar
  239. Pisante M, Stagnari F, Grant C (2012) Agricultural innovations for sustainable crop production intensification. Ital J Agron 7(4):300–311Google Scholar
  240. Prasad PVV, Boote KJ, Allen LH (2006a) Adverse high temperature effects on pollen viability, seed-set, grain yield and harvest index of grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] are more severe at elevated carbon dioxide due to higher tissue temperatures. Agric For Meteorol 139:237–251Google Scholar
  241. Prasad PVV, Boote KJ, Allen LH, Sheehy JE, Thomas JMG (2006b) Species, ecotype and cultivar differences in spikelet fertility and harvest index of rice in response to high temperature stress. Field Crops Res 95:398–411Google Scholar
  242. Prasad PVV, Staggenborg SA (2008) Impacts of drought and/or heat stress on physiological, developmental, growth, and yield processes of crop plants. In: Ajuha LR, Reddy VR, Saseendran SA, Yu Q (eds) Response of crops to limited water: understanding and modeling water stress effects on plant growth processes. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp 301–356Google Scholar
  243. Puget P, Chenu C, Balesdent J (1995) Total and young organic matter distributions in aggregates of silty cultivated soils. Eur J Soil Sci 46:449–459Google Scholar
  244. Qaderi MM, Reid DM (2005) Growth and physiological responses of canola (Brassica napus) to UV-B and CO2 under controlled environment conditions. Physiol Plant 125:247–259Google Scholar
  245. Quine TA, Walling DE (1993) Use of caesium—137 measurements to investigate relationships between erosion rates and topography. In: Thomas DSG, Allison RJ (eds) Landscape sensitivity. Wiley, Chichester, pp 31–48Google Scholar
  246. Rao KPC, Steenhuis TS, Cogle AL, Srinivasan ST, Yule DF, Smith GD (1998) Rainfall infiltration and runoff from an Alfisol in semiarid tropical India. I. No-till systems. Soil Till Res 48:51–59Google Scholar
  247. Raper RL, Reeves DW, Schwab EB, Burmester CH (2000) Reducing soil compaction of Tennessee Valley soils in conservation tillage systems. J Cotton Sci 4(2):84–90Google Scholar
  248. Rasmussen KJ (1999) Impact of ploughless soil tillage on yield and soil quality: a Scandinavian review. Soil Till Res 53:3–14Google Scholar
  249. Reeleder RD, Miller JJ, Coelho BRB, Roy RC (2006) Impacts of tillage, cover crop, and nitrogen on populations of earthworms, microarthropods, and soil fungi in a cultivated fragile soil. Appl Soil Ecol 33:243–257Google Scholar
  250. Regina K, Alakukku L (2010) Greenhouse gas fluxes in varying soil types under conventional and no-tillage practices. Soil Till Res 109:144–152Google Scholar
  251. Reicosky DC (1997) Tillage-induced CO2 emissions from soil. Nutr Cycl Agroesyst 49:273–285Google Scholar
  252. Reicosky DC (1998) Effect of Tillage on the release of CO2. Paper presented to the Symposium “Conservation Tillage: can it assist in mitigating the Greenhouse Gas Problem?”. The University of QueenslandGoogle Scholar
  253. Reicosky DC, Lindstrom MJ (1993) Fall tillage methods: effect on short-term carbon dioxide flux from soil. Agron J 85-6:1237–1243Google Scholar
  254. Reicosky DC, Lindstrom MJ (1995) Impact of fall tillage and short-term carbon dioxide flux. In: Lal R, Kimble J, Levine E, Stewart B (eds) Soil Global Change. Lewis , Chelsea, pp 177–187Google Scholar
  255. Reicosky DC, Lindstrom MJ, Schumacher TE, Lobb D, Malo DD (2005) Tillage-induced CO2 loss across an eroded landscape. Soil Till Res 81(2):183–194Google Scholar
  256. Rhoton FE, Shipitalo MJ, Lindbo DL (2002) Runoff and soil loss from midwestern and southeastern US silt loam soils as affected by tillage practice and soil organic matter content. Soil Till Res 66:1–11Google Scholar
  257. Riley HCF, Bleken MA, Abrahamsen S, Bergjord AK, Bakken AK (2005) Effects of alternative tillage systems on soil quality and yield of spring cereals on silty clay loam and sandy loam soils in the cool, wet climate of central Norway. Soil Till Res 80:79–93Google Scholar
  258. Rizhsky LH, Liang H, Shuman J, Shulaev V, Davletova S, Mittler R (2004) When defense pathways collide: the response of Arabidopsis to a combination of drought and heat stress. Plant Physiol 134:1683–1696PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Robertson LN, Kettle BA, Simpson GB (1994) The influence of tillage practices on soil macrofauna in a semiarid agroecosystem in Northeastern Australia. Agric Ecosyst Environ 48:149–156Google Scholar
  260. Robertson GP, Bruulsema TW, Gehl RJ, Kanter D, Mauzerall DL, Rotz CA, Williams CO (2012) Nitrogen-climate interactions in US agriculture. Biogeochemistry 114:41–70Google Scholar
  261. Robinson CA, Cruse RM, Ghaffarzadeh M (1996) Cropping system and nitrogen effects on Mollisol organic carbon. Soil Sci Soc Am J 60:264–269Google Scholar
  262. Rochette P (2008) No-till only increases N2O emissions in poorly-aerated soils. Soil Till Res 101:97–100Google Scholar
  263. Rochette P, Janzen HH (2005) Towards a revised coefficient for estimating N2O emissions from legumes. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 73:171–179Google Scholar
  264. Rochette P, Angers DA, Chantigny MH, Bertrand N (2008) N2O emissions respond differently to no-till in a loam and a heavy clay soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 72:1363–1369Google Scholar
  265. Röhrig R, Langmaack M, Schrader S, Larink O (1998) Tillage systems and soil compaction: their impact on abundance and vertical distribution of Enchytraeidae. Soil Till Res 46:117–127Google Scholar
  266. Roth CH, Meyer B, Frede HG, Derpsch R (1988) Effect of mulch rates and tillage systems on infiltrability and other soil physical-properties of an oxisol in Parana, Brazil. Soil Till Res 11:81–91Google Scholar
  267. Rötter RP, Palosuo T, Pirttioja NK, Dubrovski M, Salo T, Fronzek S, Aikasalo R, Trnka M, Ristolainen A, Carter TR (2011) What would happen to barley production in Finland if global warming exceeded 4°C? A model-based assessment. Eur J Agron 35:205–214Google Scholar
  268. Rovira AD, Smettem KRJ, Lee KE (1987) Effect of rotation and conservation tillage on earthworms in a red-brown earth under wheat. Aust J Agric Res 38:829–834Google Scholar
  269. Sauer TJ, Hatfield JL, Prueger JH (1996) Corn residue age and placement effects on evaporation and soil thermal regime. Soil Sci Soc Am J 60:1558–1564Google Scholar
  270. Sauer TJ, Hatfield JL, Prueger JH (1997) Over-winter changes in radiant energy exchange of a corn residue-covered surface. Agric Forest Meteorol 85:279–287Google Scholar
  271. Schütz H, Holzapfel-Pschorn A, Conrad R, Rennenberg H, Seiler W (1989) A three years continuous record on the influence of daytime, season and fertilizer treatment on methane emission rates from an Italian rice paddy field. J Geophys Res 94:16405–16416Google Scholar
  272. Seghers D, Top EM, Reheul D, Bulcke R, Boeckx P, Verstraete W, Siciliano SD (2003) Long-term effects of mineral versus organic fertilizers on activity and structure of the methanotrophic community in agricultural soils. Environ Microbiol 5:867–877PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Seinfeld JH, Pandis SN (2006) Atmospheric chemistry and physics: from air pollution to climate change. Wiley, New York, pp 1–1203Google Scholar
  274. Sidiras N, Pavan MA (1985) Influencia do sistema de manejo do solo no seu nivel de fertilidade. Rev Bras Cienc Solo 9:244–254Google Scholar
  275. Sisti CPJ, dos Santos HP, Kohhann R, Alves BJR, Urquiaga S, Boddey RM (2004) Change in carbon and nitrogen stocks in soil under 13 years of conventional or zero tillage in southern Brazil. Soil Till Res 76:39–58Google Scholar
  276. Six J, Elliot ET, Paustian K, Doran JW (1998) Aggregation and soil organic matter accumulation in cultivated and native grassland soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 62:1367–1377Google Scholar
  277. Six J, Ogle SM, Breidt FJ, Conant RT, Mosier AR, Paustian K (2004) The potential to mitigate global warming no-tillage management is only realized when practiced in the long run. Global Change Biol 10:155–160Google Scholar
  278. Skjøth CA, Geels C (2013) The effect of climate and climate change on ammonia emissions in Europe. Atmos Chem Phys 13:117–128Google Scholar
  279. Smith P, Olesen JE (2010) Synergies between the mitigation of, and adaptation to, climate change in agriculture. J Agric Sci 148:543–552Google Scholar
  280. Smith P, Powlson DS, Glendenning MJ, Smith JU (1998) Preliminary estimates of the potential for carbon mitigation in European soils through no-till farming. Global Change Biol 4:679–685Google Scholar
  281. Smith P, Goulding KW, Smith KA, Powlson DS, Smith JU, Falloon P, Coleman K (2001) Enhancing the carbon sink in European agricultural soils: including trace gas fluxes in estimates of carbon mitigation potential. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 60:237–252Google Scholar
  282. Soane BD, Ball BC, Arvidsson J, Basch G, Moreno F, Roger-Estrade J (2012) No-till in northern, western and south-western Europe: a review of problems and opportunities for crop production and the environment. Soil Till Res 118:66–87Google Scholar
  283. Sommer SG, Hutchings NJ (2001) Ammonia emission from field applied manure and its reduction—invited paper. Eur J Agron 15:1–15Google Scholar
  284. Sommer SG, Schjoerring JK, Denmead OT (2004) Ammonia emission from mineral fertilizers and fertilized crops. Adv Agron 82:558–622Google Scholar
  285. Soussana JF, Lüscher A (2007) Temperate grasslands and the global atmospheric change: a review. Grass Forage Sci 62:127–134Google Scholar
  286. Southworth J, Randolph JC, Habeck M, Doering OC, Pfeifer RA, Rao DG et al (2000) Consequences of future climate change and changing climate variability on maize yields in the midwestern United States. Agric Ecosyst Environ 82:139–158Google Scholar
  287. Spedding TA, Hamel C, Mehuys GR, Madramootoo CA (2004) Soil microbial dynamics in maize-growing soil under different tillage and residue management systems. Soil Biol Biochem 36:499–512Google Scholar
  288. Springett JA (1992) Distribution of lumbricid earthworms in New Zealand. Soil Biol Biochem 24:1377–1381Google Scholar
  289. Stagnari F, Ramazzotti S, Pisante M (2009) Conservation agriculture: a different approach for crop production through sustainable soil and water management: a review. Agronomy for sustainable development. In: Lichtfouse E (ed) Organic farming, pest control and remediation of soil pollutants, sustainable agriculture reviews 1. Springer, New York, pp 55–83. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-9654-9Google Scholar
  290. Stahl PD, Parkin TB, Christensen M (1999) Fungal presence in paired cultivated and uncultivated soils in central Iowa, USA. Biol Fertil Soils 29:92–97Google Scholar
  291. Steiner JL (1989) Tillage and surface residue effects on evaporation from soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 53:911–916Google Scholar
  292. Stinner BR, House GJ (1990) Arthropods and other invertebrates in conservation-tillage agriculture. Annu Rev Entomol 35:299–318Google Scholar
  293. Stockfisch N, Forstreuter T, Ehlers W (1999) Ploughing effects on soil organic matter after twenty years of conservation tillage in Lower Saxony, Germany. Soil Till Res 52:91–101Google Scholar
  294. Stuart M, Gooddy D, Bloomfield J, Williams A (2011) A review of the impact of climate change on future nitrate concentrations in groundwater of the UK. Sci Total Environ 409(15):2859–2873PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. Sudhishri S, Dass A, Lenka NK (2008) Efficacy of vegetative barriers for rehabilitation of degraded hill slopes in eastern India. Soil Till Res 99:98–107Google Scholar
  296. Supit I, Van Diepen CA, De Wit AJW, Kabat P, Baruth B, Ludwig F (2010) Recent changes in the climatic yield potential of various crops in. Europe Agric Syst 103:683–694Google Scholar
  297. Sutton M (2006) Scope and overview of the UNECE Expert Workshop on Ammonia. C. E. H. Clean Air, December, Edinburgh, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  298. Tebrügge F (2001) No-tillage visions-protection of soil, water and climate and influence on management and farm income. Garcia-Torres L Benites J Martınez-Vilela A (eds) Conservation agriculture-a worldwide challenge World Congress on Conservation Agriculture 1:303–316Google Scholar
  299. Tebrügge F (2000) No-tillage visions—protection of soil, water and climate. Justus-Liebig University, GiessenGoogle Scholar
  300. Tebrügge F, During RA (1999) Reducing tillage intensity—a review of results from a long-term study in Germany. Soil Till Res 53:15–28Google Scholar
  301. Terman GL (1979) Volatilization of nitrogen as ammonia from surface applied fertilizers, organic amendments and crop residues. Agron J 31:189–223Google Scholar
  302. Thierfelder E, Amézquita C, Stahr K (2005) Effects of intensifying organic manuring and tillage practices on penetration resistance and infiltration rate. Soil Till Res 82(2):211–226Google Scholar
  303. Tolk JA, Howell TA, Evett SR (1999) Effect of mulch, irrigation, and soil type on water use and yield of maize. Soil Till Res 50:137–147Google Scholar
  304. Tubiello FN, Amthor JS, Boote KJ, Donatelli M, Easterling W, Fischer G et al (2007) Crop response to elevated CO2 and world food supply. A comment on ‘Food for Thought… ’ by Long et al. Science 312, 1918–1921. Eur J Agron 26:215–233Google Scholar
  305. Unger PW (1991) Organic-matter, nutrient, and ph distribution in no-tillage and conventional-tillage semiarid soils. Agric J 83:186–189Google Scholar
  306. Unger PW, Parker JJ (1976) Evaporation reduction from soil with wheat, sorghum, and cotton residues. Soil Sci Soc Am J 40:938–942Google Scholar
  307. Uri ND, Atwood JD, Sanabria J (1998) The environmental benefits and costs of conservation tillage. Sci Total Environ 216:13–32Google Scholar
  308. Ussiri DAN, Lal R, Jarecki MK (2009) Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from long-term tillage under a continuous corn cropping system in Ohio. Soil Till Res 104:247–255Google Scholar
  309. Van derMJ, Van Faassen HG, Vertregt N, Bussink W, Den Boer DJ (1989) Ammonia emissions from arable and grassland soils. In: Hansen JA, Hendricksen K (eds) Nitrogen in organic wastes applied to soil. Academic, Waltham, pp 185–201Google Scholar
  310. Van DBosscheA, De Bolle S, De Neve S, Hofman G (2009) Effect of tillage intensity on N mineralization of different crop residues in a temperate climate. Soil Till Res 103:316–324Google Scholar
  311. Van denHRN, Bakker SE, Jetten MSM, Hefting MM (2011) Decreased N2O reduction by low soil pH causes high N2O emissions in a riparian ecosystem. Geobiology 9:294–300Google Scholar
  312. Van Groenigen JW, Oenema O, Van Groenigen KJ, Velthof G, Van Kessel C (2011) Best nitrogen management practices to decrease greenhouse gas emissions. Better Crops 95(2):16–17Google Scholar
  313. Van Kessel C, Farrell RE, Roskoski JP (1994) Recycling of the naturally-occurring 15 N in an established stand of Leucaena leucocephala. Soil Biol Biochem 26:757–762Google Scholar
  314. Van Kessel C, Venterea R, Ix JS, Adviento-Borbe MA, Linquist B, van Groenige KJ (2013) Climate, duration, and N placement determine N2O emissions in reduced tillage systems: a meta-analysis. Global Change Biol 19:33–44Google Scholar
  315. Van den Bygaart AJ, Yang XM, Kay BD, Aspinall JD (2002) Variability in carbon sequestration potential in no-till soil landscapes of southern Ontario. Soil Till Res 65(2):231–241Google Scholar
  316. Van den Bygaart AJ, Gregorich EG, Angers DA (2003) Influence of agricultural management on soil organic carbon: a compendium and assessment of Canadian studies. Can J Soil Sci 83:363–380Google Scholar
  317. Venterea RT, Dolan MS, Ochsner TE (2010) Urea decreases nitrous oxide emissions compared with anhydrous ammonia in a Minnesota corn cropping system. Soil Sci Soc Am J 74:407–418Google Scholar
  318. Wanniarachchi SD, Voroney RP, Vyn TJ, Beyaert RP, MacKenzie AF (1999) Tillage effects on the dynamics of total and corn-residue-derived soil organic matter in two southern Ontario soils. Can J Soil Sci 79:473–480Google Scholar
  319. Wardle DA (1995) Impacts of disturbance on detritus food webs in agro-ecosystems of contrasting tillage and weed management practices. In: Begon M, Fitter AH (eds) Advances in ecological research. Academic, New York, pp 105–185Google Scholar
  320. Wassmann R, Wang MX, Shangguan XJ, Xie XL, Shen RX, Wang YS, Papen H, Rennenberg H, Seiler W (1993) First records of a field experiment on fertilizer effects on methane emission from rice fields in Hunan-province (PR China). Geophys Res Lett 20:2071–2074Google Scholar
  321. Webb J, Pain B, Bittman S, Morgan J (2010) The impacts of manure application methods on emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and on crop response-A review. Agric Ecosyst Environ 137:39–46Google Scholar
  322. West TO, Post WM (2002) Soil organic carbon sequestration rates by tillage and crop rotation: a global data analysis. Soil Sci Soc Am J 66(6):1930–1946Google Scholar
  323. Wheeler TR, Ellis RH, Hadley P, Morison JIL, Batts GR, Daymond AJ (1996) Assessing the effects of climate change on field crop production. Aspects Appl Biol 45:49–54Google Scholar
  324. Whitbread AM, Lefroy RDB, Blair GJ (1998) A survey of the impact of cropping on soil physical and chemical properties in north-western New South Wales. Aust J Soil Res 36:669–681Google Scholar
  325. Wuebbles DJ, Hayhoe K (2002) Atmospheric methane and global change. Earth Sci Rev 57:177–221Google Scholar
  326. Wuest SB (2001) Earthworm, infiltration, and tillage relationships in a dryland pea-wheat rotation. Appl Soil Ecol 18:187–192Google Scholar
  327. Wyss E, Glasstetter M (1992) Tillage treatments and earthworm distribution in a swiss experimental corn field. Soil Biol Biochem 24:1635–1639Google Scholar
  328. Xu H, Cai ZC, Tsuruta H (2003) Soil moisture between rice-growing seasons affects methane emission, production, and oxidation. Soil Sci Soc Am J 67:1147–1157Google Scholar
  329. Xu L, Penner JE (2012) Global simulations of nitrate and ammonium aerosols and their radiative effects. Atmos Chem Phys 12:9479–9504Google Scholar
  330. Yang SS, Chang HL (2001) Methane emission from paddy fields in Taiwan. Biol Fertil Soils 33:157–165Google Scholar
  331. Yang XM, Kay BD (2001) Impacts of tillage practices on total, loose- and occluded-particulate, and humified organic carbon fractions in soils within a field in southern Ontario. Can J Soil Sci 81:149–156Google Scholar
  332. Yano T, Aydin M, Haraguchi T (2007) Impact of climate change on irrigation demand and crop growth in a Mediterranean environment of Turkey. Sensors 7:2297–2315PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  333. Zavattaro L, Monaco S, Sacco D, Grignani C (2012) Options to reduce N loss from maize in intensive cropping systems. Agric Ecosyst Environ 147:24–35Google Scholar
  334. Zhao M, Running SW (2010) Drought-induced reduction in global terrestrial net primary production from 2000 through 2009. Science 329:940–943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. Zunino M (1991) Food relocation behaviour: a multivalent strategy of Coleoptera. In: Zunino M, Bellés X, Blas M (eds) Advances in coleopterology. AEC, Barcelona, pp 297–313Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Pisante
    • 1
    Email author
  • F. Stagnari
    • 1
  • M. Acutis
    • 2
  • M. Bindi
    • 3
  • L. Brilli
    • 3
  • V. Di Stefano
    • 3
  • M. Carozzi
    • 4
  1. 1.Agronomy and Crop Sciences Research and Education Center—Via C.R.LericiUniversity of TeramoMosciano S.AngeloItaly
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences—Production, Landscape, Agroenergy—Via G. CeloriaUniversity of MilanoMilanoItaly
  3. 3.Department of Agri-food Production and Environmental SciencesUniversity of Florence -Piazzale delle CascineFirenzeItaly
  4. 4.INRA, AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes CulturesThiverval-GrignonFrance

Personalised recommendations