From High-Level Task Descriptions to Executable Robot Code

  • Maj Stenmark
  • Jacek Malec
  • Andreas Stolt
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 323)


For robots to be productive co-workers in the manufacturing industry, it is necessary that their human colleagues can interact with them and instruct them in a simple manner. The goal of our research is to lower the threshold for humans to instruct manipulation tasks, especially sensor-controlled assembly. In our previous work we have presented tools for high-level task instruction, while in this paper we present how these symbolic descriptions of object manipulation are translated into executable code for our hybrid industrial robot controllers.


State Machine Kinematic Chain Industrial Robot Robot Controller Executable Code 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Björkelund, A., Edström, L., Haage, M., Malec, J., Nilsson, K., Nugues, P., Robertz, S.G., Störkle, D., Blomdell, A., Johansson, R., Linderoth, M., Nilsson, A., Robertsson, A., Stolt, A., Bruyninckx, H.: On the integration of skilled robot motions for productivity in manufacturing. In: Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Assembly and Manufacturing, Tampere, Finland (2011), doi:10.1109/ISAM.2011.5942366Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Malec, J., Nilsson, K., Bruyninckx, H.: Describing assembly tasks in a declarative way. In: ICRA 2013 WS on Semantics, Identification and Control of Robot-Human-Environment Interaction (2013)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Stenmark, M., Malec, J.: Knowledge-Based Industrial Robotics. In: Proc. of the 12th Scandinavian AI Conference, Aalborg, Denmark, November 20-22 (2013),
  4. 4.
    Stenmark, M., Malec, J.: Describing constraint-based assembly tasks in unstructured natural language. In: Proc. IFAC 2014 World Congress, Capetown, South Africa, August 24-29 (2014)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kent, S.: Model Driven Engineering. In: Butler, M., Petre, L., Sere, K. (eds.) IFM 2002. LNCS, vol. 2335, pp. 286–298. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vanthienen, D., Klotzbuecher, M., Bruyninckx, H.: The 5C-based architectural Composition Pattern. JOSER 5(1), 17–35 (2014)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stenmark, M., Nugues, P.: Natural Language Programming of Industrial Robots. In: Proc. International Symposium of Robotics 2013, Seoul, South Korea (October 2013)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Blomdell, A., Dressler, I., Nilsson, K., Robertsson, A.: Flexible Application Development and High-performance Motion Control Based on External Sensing and Reconfiguration of ABB Industrial Robot Controllers. In: Proc. of ICRA 2010, Anchorage, USA, pp. 62–66 (2010)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Björkelund, A., Malec, J., Nilsson, K., Nugues, P., Bruyninckx, H.: Knowledge for Intelligent Industrial Robots. In: Proc. AAAI 2012 Spring Symp. on Designing Intelligent Robots. Stanford Univ. (March 2012)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stenmark, M., Malec, J., Nilsson, K., Robertsson, A.: On Distributed Knowledge Bases for Industrial Robotics Needs. In: Proc. Cloud Robotics Workshop at IROS 2013, Tokyo (November 3, 2013),
  11. 11.
    ABB RobotStudio, (visited February 04, 2013)
  12. 12.
    Theorin, A.: Adapting Grafchart for Industrial Automation. Licentiate Thesis, Lund University, Department of Automatic Control (2013)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    IEC. IEC 61131-3: Programmable controllers – part 3: Programming languages. Technical report, International Electrotechnical Commission (2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Harel, D.: Statecharts: A visual formalism for complex systems. Science of Computer Programming 8, 231–274 (1987)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stenmark, M., Stolt, A.: A System for High-Level Task Specification Using Complex Sensor-based Skill. In: RSS 2013 Workshop, Programming with Constraints: Combining High-level Action Specification and Low-level Motion Execution, Berlin, Germany (2013)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    De Schutter, J., De Laet, T., Rutgeerts, J., Decré, W., Smits, R., Aertbeliën, E., Claes, K., Bruyninckx, H.: Constraint-based task specification and estimation for sensor-based robot systems in the presence of geometric uncertainty. The International Journal of Robotics Research 26(5), 433–455 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pan, Z., Polden, J., Larkin, N., van Duin, S., Norrish, J.: Recent progress on programming methods for industrial robots. In: 41st International Symposium on Robotics (ISR) and 6th German Conference on Robotics (ROBOTIK), pp. 619–626. VDE VERLAG GMBH, Berlin (2010)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rossano, G., Martinez, C., Hedelind, M., Murphy, S., Fuhlbrigge, T.: Easy robot programming concepts: An industrial perspective. In: Proceedings 9th IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering, Madison, Wisconsin, USA (2013)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Billard, A., Calinon, S., Dillmann, R., Schaal, S.: Robot Programming by Demonstration. In: Springer Handbook of Robotics, pp. 1371–1394. Springer (2008)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nilsson, A., Muradore, R., Nilsson, K., Fiorini, P.: Ontology for Robotics: a Roadmap. In: Proceedings of the Int. Conf. Advanced Robotics (ICAR 2009), Munich, Germany (2009)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mitsi, S., Bouzakis, K.-D., Mansour, G., Sagris, D., Maliaris, G.: Off-line programming of an industrial robot for manufacturing. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 26, 262–267 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bottazzi, V., Fonseca, J.: Off-line Programming Industrial Robots Based in the Information Extracted From Neutral Files Generated by the Commercial CAD Tools Industrial Robotics: Programming. In: Huat, L.K. (ed.) Simulation and Application (2006) ISBN 3-86611-286-6Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hägele, M., Nilsson, K., Pires, J.N.: Industrial Robotics. In: Springer Handbook of Robotics, pp. 963–986. Springer (2008)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bischoff, R., Kazi, A., Seyfarth, M.: The morpha style guide for icon-based programming. In: Proc. of the IEEE Int. Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (2002)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Neto, P., Pires, J.N., Moreira, A.P.: High-level programming and control for industrial robotics: using a hand-held accelerometer-based input device for gesture and posture recognition. Industrial Robot 37(2), 137–147 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Stolt, A., Linderoth, M., Robertsson, A., Johansson, R.: Force controlled assembly of emergency stop button. In: 2011 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Shanghai, China (May 2011)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kröger, T., Finkemeyer, B., Wahl, F.M.: Manipulation Primitives — A Universal Interface between Sensor-Based Motion Control and Robot Programming. In: Schütz, D., Wahl, F.M. (eds.) Robotic Systems for Handling and Assembly. STAR, vol. 67, pp. 293–313. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Beetz, M., Mösenlechner, L., Tenorth, M.: CRAM: A Cognitive Robot Abstract Machine for Everyday Manipulation in Human Environments. In: Proc. of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Taipei, Taiwan, October 18-22 (2010)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kresse, I., Beetz, M.: Movement-Aware Action Control Integrating Symbolic and Control-Theoretic Action Execution. In: Proc. ICRA 2012, pp. 3245–3251 (2012)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dept. of Computer ScienceLund UniversityLundSweden
  2. 2.Dept. of Automatic ControlLund UniversityLundSweden

Personalised recommendations