The Evolution of Europe’s Launcher and Flagship Space Initiatives
The Many Facets of European Autonomy The ESPI conference on European Autonomy in Space, held on 17 and 18 January 2011, under the leadership of former ESPI Director, Prof. Kai-Uwe Schrogl, provided an insightful evaluation of autonomy as one of the key drivers leading to the development of Europe’s current space capabilities. Defining autonomy in Europe was the first step, wherein speakers distinguished the term from other forms of self-sufficiency, such as autarky, non-dependence, and the like. With the issue defined, the policy areas and the elements of autonomy and dependence were discussed, covering European pursuits in a broad range of topics including energy, culture, science, and security. With those elements identified, the key issue areas addressed access to space, space applications, human spaceflight, security and space situational awareness, and strategies that could be followed.