A Taxonomy of Heterogeneity and Dynamics in Particle Swarm Optimisation

  • Harry Goldingay
  • Peter R. Lewis
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8672)


We propose a taxonomy for heterogeneity and dynamics of swarms in PSO, which separates the consideration of homogeneity and heterogeneity from the presence of adaptive and non-adaptive dynamics, both at the particle and swarm level. It supports research into the separate and combined contributions of each of these characteristics. An analysis of the literature shows that most recent work has focussed on only parts of the taxonomy. Our results agree with prior work that both heterogeneity, where particles exhibit different behaviour from each other at the same point in time, and dynamics, where individual particles change their behaviour over time, are useful. However while heterogeneity does typically improve PSO, this is often dominated by the improvement due to dynamics. Adaptive strategies used to generate heterogeneity may end up sacrificing the dynamics which provide the greatest performance increase. We evaluate exemplar strategies for each area of the taxonomy and conclude with recommendations.


Particle Swarm Optimisation Particle Swarm Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimisation Particle Swarm Optimisation Variant Entire Swarm 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harry Goldingay
    • 1
  • Peter R. Lewis
    • 1
  1. 1.Aston Lab for Intelligent Collectives Engineering (ALICE), Aston Institute for Systems AnalyticsAston UniversityBirminghamUK

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